Guilford was formed from Oxford April 3, 1813, as Eastern. Its name was changed March 21, 1817. It lies upon the east border of the county, south of the center, and is bounded on the north by Norwich, on the east by the Unadilla, which separates it from Otsego county, on the south by Bainbridge, and on the west by Oxford. The surface is hilly and broken, consisting mostly of the elevated lands lying between the Chenango and Unadilla rivers. The summits of the hills rise from 200 to 700 feet above the valleys. It is drained by the Unadilla and its tributaries, the principal of which is Guilford Creek, which flows diagonally through the town, terminating in a most charmingly picturesque valley and uniting with the Unadilla in the south-east corner of the town.

    It is underlaid by the rocks of the Catskill group, which afford excellent flagging stone in several localities in the town, principally in the south-east part. On Guilford Creek, at East Guilford, four quarries have been opened, three of them recently. One, opened some sixteen years ago, has been abandoned. A fifth, located about a mile below Rockdale, on the farm of D.C. Warner, was opened in 1877; and a sixth, on the farm of Mrs. Nelson Reynolds, about midway between Guilford and Guilford Center, has been opened a good many years, and has been worked steadily for the last two years. Eight to ten men are employed in this quarry; while in those at East Guilford some sixteen men are employed. The soil is a sandy loam in the valleys and clay loam upon the hills. It is well adapted to grazing and its agriculture is made to conform to this natural adaptation. Dairying is the chief industry, the milk being taken largely to factories, of which there are five in the town, one at Latham's Corners, one at Rockdale, one at Yaleville, one a little above Guilford, and one about midway between Guilford and East Guilford, at what formerly was known as Humphrey station, a flag station on the Midland Railroad which was abandoned as such about a year after the railroad was built.

    The Midland Railroad enters the town in the south-east corner and crossing it diagonally, leaves it near the center of the west border. The New Berlin branch of that road connects with the main line at East Guilford and extends north along the east border of the town.

    In 1875 the population of the town was 2,519; of whom 2,397 were natives, 122 foreigners, 2,515 white and 4 colored. Its area was 37,359 acres; of which 28,836 were improved, 8,040, woodland, and 483, otherwise unimproved. The cash value of farms was $1,766,440; of farm buildings other than dwellings, $241,850; of stock, $267,795; and of tools and implements, $63,370. The amount of gross sales of farms in 1874, was $206,712.

    Following is a census of the town of Eastern, taken by Messrs. Robbins & Balden in June, 1814, the year following its organization:---

Electors possessed of freeholds of 100 £ .........160
    "                    "                  "      of 20 £ per year,4
Electors not possessed of freeholds but who
rent tenants of the yearly value of 40 shillings....
Free white males under 18 years of age …….....534
    "        "        "     of the age of 18 years and
under 45 …………………..................................
Free white males of the age of 45 years and
Free white females under 18 years of age ……473
    "        "        "       of the age of 18 years and
under 45........………………….........................
Free white females of the age of 45 years and
upward ………………………………………….
Slaves …………………………………………....4

Aggregate …………………………………….....2050

Heads of families ………………………………..283

    There are 19 common school districts in the town, each of which has a school-house within the town. The number of children of school age residing in the districts Sept. 30, 1877, was 657. During the year ending Sept. 30, 1878, there were 18 male and 19 female teachers employed, of whom 19 were licensed; the number of children residing in the districts who attended schools was 541; of whom 6 were under five or over twenty-one years of age; the average daily attendance during the year was 309.740; the number of volumes in district libraries was 788, the value of which was $171; the number of school-houses was 19, all frame, which, with the sites, embracing 3 acres and 30 rods, valued at $1,445, were valued at $11,670; the assessed value of taxable property in the districts was $1,482,971. The number of children between eight and fourteen years of age residing in the districts Sept. 30, 1877, was 271, of whom 245 attended district school during fourteen weeks of that year.

Receipts and Disbursements for School Purposes:---

Amount on hand Oct. 1, 1876$      21.08
       "     apportioned to districts2,149.50
Proceeds of Gospel and School Lands40.42
Raised by tax728.49
From teachers' board383.00
    "    other sources3.51

Paid for teachers' wages$3,018.67
    "   for school apparatus1.27
    "   for libraries1.53
    "   school-houses, fences, sites, out-houses,
         repairs, furniture, etc
Paid for incidental expenses212.05
Amount remaining on hand Oct. 1, 187733.42

    SETTLEMENTS.---It is generally supposed, and is so stated in French's Gazetteer and other works consulted, that the first settlement in the town was made by Ezekiel Wheeler, in 1787. While we cannot disprove the statement, we have good reason to doubt its accuracy. From conversations had with members of this family, we are led to believe that Wheeler did not settle in the town until seven years later. There is little to aid the searcher in this peculiar field of inquiry, and in the absence of documentary proofs, facts can only be stated approximately. While it is difficult, perhaps impossible, to determine with certainty just when and by whom the first settlement was made, it is pretty certain that several families had made settlements in 1790 and '91, a few possibly a year or two earlier. We incline to the opinion that the Merceraus---Joshua and John L.,---were the first. It is certain that the former was here in 1791, for in that year he was elected one of the first officers of the town of Bainbridge, which then, together with the major part of the present county of Chenango, formed a part of Tioga county, which was erected that year from Montgomery County. It is possible that he was here two or three years earlier. French says he built, in 1789, at the mouth of the Guilford creek, where he settle, the first mill in town. The Merceraus, who were brothers and Frenchmen, came here from the locality of New York. Both settled at East Guilford, on the south line of the town, Joshua on the farm now occupied by Matthew Miller, and John L. on that occupied by Adney Talcott. Joshua afterwards removed to Guilford Center, and kept tavern there, and subsequently, after the death of his wife, to Stueben county and died at Painted Post. John continued to reside in the town till his death. He was the first Surrogate in Chenango county, an office to which he was appointed March 22, 1798. His sons were: Harmon, a bachelor, John, James and Theodore, who removed to Steuben county about 1830. The mill, which was a frame building, stood on the site of the present mills at East Guilford. It had rotted down about 1820.

    About 1790 James Hayes moved in with his family from Putnam county, and settled at what is now known as Latham's Corners, on the Unadilla, in the north-east part of the town. His son Ira, who was married, accompanied and settled with him. They came in with a wagon, which is believed to have been the first one brought up the Unadilla, those who preceded him having made the ascent in boats. He died here February 7, 1823, aged 82; also his wives, Elizabeth and Minewell, the former September 28, 1807, aged 61, and the latter April 11, 1824, aged 72. His children were: Ira, Edward J., Lewis, Daniel, Ammi, John, Smith, Sally, Elizabeth, Rhoda and James Jr., the latter of whom remained in Putnam county, but removed to the town of Smithville some eight or ten years later.

    Ira was a saddler and harness-maker, and died on the old homestead April 23, 1841, aged 68. He married Margaret Terry, who died February 25, 1850, aged 73. He had three sons and three daughters; Friend, who married Sally Dunbar, and had one daughter, who is now the wife of Foster C. Place, of Mount Upton; David, who married Ethelinda Bushnell, of Saybrook, Conn., who died on June 18, 1836, aged 39, and for his second wife Hannah Cory, and had one son, Cory D., now a banker at Clinton, Oneida county, and one daughter, Edna M., who married George H. Spry, a lawyer at Minneapolis, Minn.; Ur, who married Julia Ann Buckingham, with whom he is now living at Mount Upton; Electa, who died unmarried July 4, 1847, aged 38; Mercy, who married William S. Moore, of McDonough, now of Guilford; and Eliza, who married Benjamin Chapman, of Norwich, where both are now living at an advanced age.

    Edward J. married Abigail Terry, sister to Ira's wife, and died April 6, 1813, aged 38. He had three sons, Harry, James and Edward T., the latter of whom, a member of the firm of Hayes & Rider, piano manufacturer at Norwich, is the only one living. He had also one daughter, who married Tompkins Jewell, of Guilford.

    Lewis, Ammi and Smith settled in Steuben county. John had two sons, Edward and William, the latter of whom has two sons who are now Methodist ministers. James, Jr., has one son Elijah, living in Greene. Rhoda married Jesse Green and settled and died in Norwich. Elizabeth married Peter Besanson, a French physician, and lived and died in Cooperstown, N.Y. Sally married Elisha Green and lived and died in Smithville.

    This same year, 1790, James Phelps and a man named Button settled near Rockdale, and Robert McLeod, on lot number 1. About this time also Rufus Phelps settled at Rockdale, where he was probably the first settled. His log house stood in the garden in rear of the residence of Alvah Warner. He died there at an advanced age at an early day. His son Rufus removed to Erie county in 1835. James Phelps was one of the first assessors in the town of Bainbridge, elected in 1791. This year also witnessed the settlement of Sullivan Reynolds. He was an important accession to the little colony who had undertaken the subjugation of this wilderness region. He was an active, enterprising business man. He located on the Unadilla at Rockwell's Mills, and established there that year a store, which was the first built on the Unadilla. He also kept an ashery and still, stimulating by the productions of the latter, as well as by his energy and enterprise, for many years the settlements in that locality. He died there some thirty years ago. His children were William, who removed at an early day to Elmira, where he married and died; John, who married Mary Moses and settled in Pultneyville, N.Y., where he and his wife now reside; Sally, who married Charles Westcott and lived in Norwich, where she died about a year ago and her husband a year or two previously; Randolph and Clark, who removed at an early day to Pultneyville, where the latter died; Maria, who married Samuel Burdick, with whom she is now living in Guilford; Deniza, who married John Gilbert and lived and died in Masonville, where her husband now resides; and Sullivan, who married Abigail Griswold and lived on the homestead at Rockwell's Mills, till within about twenty years, when he removed to his present residence just across the river in the town of Butternuts.

    Settlements were made in 1791 by Isaac Fuller, Daniel Savage, John Nash, Edward Robbins and Lemuel Cornell. Fuller came from Guilford, Conn., and settled on a small place tow and one-half miles south of Mt. Upton, and worked out by the day. He was one of the first elected to the office of pathmaster in the town of Bainbridge. He died there in 1793, his death being the first in the town. The marriage of his widow the same year to a man named Powell was the first in the town. He had two children, Isaac Y. and Prudence. The birth of the latter, in April, 1791 was the first in town. One of Isaac Y. Fuller's daughters is living in the town, Armenia, who married a man named Cox, a brother of Isaac Cox. Savage, Nash and Robbins, who were then young men, came in company from Ballston, Saratoga county, from Unadilla by a foot-path indicated by blazed trees, and settled near what has since been known as the old four corners. Savage located on a part of the farm now occupied by Lucius Shelton, near where the widow Orrin Gridley now lives, about tow miles north of Guilford. Nash, on the top of the hill, near Van Buren Corners, on the site of the residence of the widow Brant; and Robbins, where Philo Shelton now lives. Robbins was taken sick with the small-pox, and when sufficiently recovered he and Nash went back to Ballston, leaving Savage to toil alone in the wilderness for seven months, till their return. They came in the spring and the following February Savage brought in his family. There was then but one house in Guilford Center. It stood where John Young now lives and was occupied by a man named Carney, who soon after died, and was buried in the woods on the creek, near the Hiram Burlison place. 1 Savage died where he settled in 1846. He had three children, Almira, who married Charles Cobb, who, after her death, at the Center, removed to the North River; Giles, who married Keziah, daughter of James Phelps, and settled at Guilford Center, where his wife died Dec. 31, 1864, aged 73; and Clarissa, who married Azor Wood and lived and died near Guilford Center. Giles was a soldier in the war of 1812. He was killed on the railroad in Michigan some years previous to the death of his second wife, have become slightly deranged. One of his daughters who is living in Kansas is the only one of the family left.

    Lemuel Cornell settled four miles north-west of Mt. Upton, on the farm now occupied by Miles Houck, who married his grand-daughter, where he died about 1849. His children were Daniel, who married Catherine Wolcott, and settled and died about a mile below his father, on the farm now occupied by his second wife and family; Edward, who married Lovina Miles, of Coventry, where he practiced medicine till his death, July 19, 1849, aged 56, and where his wife died Dec. 2, 1834, aged 39. After her death he married Wrexaville Burgess, by whom he had one son, Wm. B. Frank. R. E. Cornell, a son by his first wife, settled in Minneapolis, Minn., over twenty years ago. He was Attorney-General and is now a Judge of the Supreme Court of that State; Elihu, who married Phila Root, settled in Unadilla, and is now living in Gilbertsville, to which place he removed a few years ago; and Maria, who married Seth D. Richmond, and another daughter, who married Richard Perkins, both of whom died in Butternuts.

    In 1792, a man named Wasson settled on the Deacon Mills place, now occupied by Andrew Burton. He was a pious man, and died soon after from an attack of sickness at a religious meeting. He was the first one buried in the graveyard east of the old four corners.

    Gordon and Wyatt Chamberlayne, 2 originally from Connecticut, were the first settlers in the town of Butternuts, on the opposite side of the Unadilla, in Otsego county. They located at Gilbertsville about 1790, and removed thence in 1793 to Guilford. Both settled at Mt. Upton, Gordon on the farm now owned by Colwell Chamberlayne, his brother Wyatt's grandson, his house standing between the brook and the second house from the corner; and Wyatt on the farm now owned by Foster Place, a little above the village. Gordon died on the farm he took up. None of his children or grandchildren are living in the county. Wyatt's children were Zadock, who married Sarah Swan, of Maryland, and settled on the Gordon Chamberlayne farm, in the house opposite the hotel in Mt. Upton, and died there; Lucy, who married Glazier Wheeler, both of whom lived and died in Mt. Upton; Calvin C., who married Wealthy Deming, and settled on the farm now owned by his son Cyrenus, to whom, shortly before his death, he surrendered it, and went to live in Mt. Upton, where he died May 24, 1877, aged 84, and his wife Jan. 15, 1871, aged 76; Wyatt, who was a Methodist minister and removed to Canada, where he continued to reside till his death, having during the latter part of his life been engaged in farming and mercantile business; Israel, who married Johanna Price, and served as a Methodist preacher through Oneida and Genesee Conferences so long as he was able to preach, and finally settled in the town of Yates, Orleans county, where he died; Joel, who married Eleanor Carr, of Baltimore, and settled and died on the farm now owned by Ur Hayes, just above Mt. Upton; Catharine, who married John Dickey, and after a few years spent in the town removed by Utica, and subsequently to Syracuse, where both died; Charlotte, who married Elihu Phelps, and after several years' residence in the town, removed to the St. Lawrence, where they died; Lasslie, who died young and unmarried; and Ashley, who married for his second wife Huldah Stetson, and lived mostly in this town, where he died.

    Dr. John A. Chamberlayne, a physician in Utica, is a son of Joel's. Calvin's grandchildren are the only ones living in the county. They are Cyrenus, Colwell and Cordelia, wife of Joseph Morse, all of Guilford; Caroline, wife of Benjamin Peck, resided in the town till April, 1878, and is now living in Harpersville, Broome county, where their son, Henry C., is a practicing physician. Descendants of Wyatt's to the fifth generation are living in the town.

    Settlements were made this same year (1793,) by John Secor, and William and Nathaniel R. Hyer. Secor came from Haverstraw, Orange county, and settled on the river, near Latham's Corners. He was a Revolutionary soldier, and a cooper by trade. He followed that vocation and died at Mt. Upton, Sept. 27, 1846, aged 84. Mary, his wife, died April 8, 1845, aged 68. His children were Zenas, who removed from the town as a young man; William, who was a cooper, lived in the locality of Latham's Corners, and died at Mt. Upton; Ezekiel, who married Betsy Masters, (who is now living in Clarksville,) and removed to Cooperstown, where he died; John, who married Cynthia Young, settled on the farm now owned by Perry Rood, and occupied by Franklin Peet, in the locality of Latham's Corners, and afterwards removed to Mt. Upton, and died there; Allen, who removed when a young man to Philadelphia; Russell, who died unmarried a few years ago; James, who married Mary, widow of Lucius Daniels, and practiced medicine in Mt. Upton; Elias, who removed when a young man to Cooperstown, near which place he now lives; Richard, who married a daughter of Benjamin Marsh, and settled at Mt. Upton; Esther, who married Christopher Gifford and lived and died in the town of Morris; Charity, who married Walter Hyer, and removed to New Berlin, where both died; Sally, who married Russel Boyce, and lived and died in Mt. Upton, but is survived by her husband.

    The Hyers came from Columbia county and settled two miles below Mt. Upton, both on the farm now occupied by William S. Moore, where they died, William, July 27, 1845, aged 76, and Lucretia, his wife, May 22, 1833, aged 61; and Nathaniel R., Feb. 25, 1847, aged 75, and Charlotte, his wife April 26, 1836, aged 63. William's children were William G., who died Aug. 3, 1874, aged 80; Charles; Palmer, who died June 27, 1873, aged 74; Darius, who died March 4, 1865, aged 55, and Harriet, his wife, Dec. 1, 1867, aged 59; Schuyler; Sylvia, who married Herman St. John, and died April 13, 1875, aged 78, and her husband, Dec. 31, 1878, aged 86; Sarah, who married Jared Mudge, Jr., and died June 18, 1877, aged 87; and her husband Nov. 16, 1868, aged 84; Abbie, who married Joseph Smith, and died Nov. 6, 1843, aged 51, and her husband Feb. 9, 1869, aged 83; Lovina, who married Thomas Stuart; and Patty, who died unmarried Feb. 14, 1869, aged 66, all of whom are dead. Numerous descendants are living in the locality. Nathaniel's children were Nathaniel, David, Wesley and Lovisa, who married Elijah Eastwood, and died Feb. 18, 1865, aged 64, of whom only Nathaniel is living.

    Ezekiel Wheeler came from New Hampshire in 1790, and settled first at Unadilla Forks. On the death of his wife in 1794, he removed to Guilford and took up 150 acres on the Unadilla, a little south of Latham's Corners. The farm on which he settled has since been retained in the hands of the family, and is now occupied by his grandson, Silas Wheeler. His log cabin stood a little south of the present residence of his grandson Silas, and in it in 1796 he opened a tavern which was the first in the town. He afterwards kept tavern in the house which took the place of the log one and stood on the site of Silas' present residence, for which it gave way in 1851. His son Ezekiel also kept tavern in the old house, but not till after his father's death, which occurred Oct. 2, 1826, aged 78. He was a noted sportsman and spent most of his time till old age disabled him in hunting and fishing. He married a second time; his last wife, Charity, died Nov. 3, 1835, aged 78. He had four sons and one daughter, Heman, Glazier, Ezekiel, Caleb and Hannah. Heman married a lady named Ruger, of Plattsburgh, Clinton county, and removed thence to Ohio at an early day and died there. Glazier married Lucy, daughter of Wyatt Chamberlayne, and settled at Mt. Upton, where he died Nov. 27, 1826, aged 47. Ezekiel married Sally, daughter of David Demming, and settled and died on the homestead July 8, 1840, aged 56. His widow is still living there in her 90th year. Caleb married a sister a Heman's wife, and lived and died in Plattsburgh. Hannah married Caleb Batterson, who lived in the east part of the town till after her death, when he removed to Unadilla.

    Nine of Ezekiel Wheeler's grandchildren are living, Silas; Hannah, wife of Sylvanus Carhart; Amelia and Fanny, both maiden ladies in Guilford; Ezekiel and Caleb Batterson, in Unadilla; Electra, wife of Alanson Nooning, in Morris; and Francis Wheeler and his sister Charlotte, in Preston. A.H. Wheeler, a merchant at Mt. Upton, is a great-grandson of his. Ezra Wheeler, brother of Silas, was born in 1820, and in 1849, removed to Berlin, Wis., where he practiced law. In 1852 he was elected to the Legislature of that State, which he afterwards represented in the Thirty-eighth Congress, serving on the Committee on District of Columbia. In 1854 he was elected County Judge, and held that office eight years. He died in Colorado of consumption, having visited that Territory in the hope of restoring his health.

    After 1795 or '6 Samuel and Lyman Ives, Joel Hendricks and Joel Johnson established themselves at what is known as Ives' settlement, Hendricks on the farm now occupied by Lewis Ives. A Mr. Ten-Broeck owned a tract of land four miles square in that part of town and gave portions of it to those who bought farms of him to induce settlement.

    Hendricks' children were Leontas, who married Julia Farnham, of Unadilla, lived near the homestead a good many years and afterwards removed to Coventry and died there; Jesse, who married Lydia Ives and lived in that locality till advanced in years, when he went to live with a daughter who married a Methodist minister and died in the vicinity of Sherburne; William, who lived in that locality several years, married late in life and removed to Coventry; Alonzo, who lived first in Guilford and afterwards removed from the town; Eliza, who married young, but did not live with her husband and died in the edge of Bainbridge; and Abigail, who married Martin Post and lived in the edge of Oxford, when both died.

    Uri Yale settled on lot 53, in the south-west part of the town in 1796, and Dr. Benjamin Yale, his brother, on the same lot in 1799. Both died there, the latter at the age of 100 years, and both had large families, whose members have settled in the same locality, which is known as Yaleville. The descendants are numerous, respectable and wealthy.

    John Dibble settled at Guilford village at an early day. He kept tavern there in 1798. When he came in, there was but one log house and a small clearing on the site of that village, and they were abandoned. Dibble was a mill-wright and was given 100 acres of land on the site of the village to induce his settlement there. His tavern occupied the site of the present hotel. He died in 1806 of small-pox contracted in Ohio, where he had gone to contract lands. He married May 29, 1791, Loretta Warner, who continued the tavern a short time after his death, and afterwards married William Cable, who came in at an early day and bought a large tract of land, including the site of Guilford village, where he was an early merchant. Dibble left five children, Russell, Ira, Huldah, who died in childhood, Anna and Maria. Russell was born May 31, 1793. He married Salina Isbell and settled in the village, where George Baldwin now lives. He was a tanner and carried on that business here about forty years. About the close of the war of 1812, in which he served, and for which service he is now drawing a pension, he built the old tannery in Guilford, the foundation of which still remains and forms the substructure of Bradley & Winsor's cabinet shop, which occupies the same site. He is now living in Mt. Upton. His wife died Nov. 19, 1857, aged 60. Ira was born April 13, 1795. He married Charlotte Root and lived in Guilford and died there at an early age. Anna was born June 22, 1799, and married Silas Seely, of Oxford, where she lived and died April 20, 1871, aged 70, and her husband May 17, 1855, aged 56. Maria was born July 21, 1801. She married Niram R. Merchant, a carpenter and joiner and mill-wright, and lived and died in the town in the fall of 1878. Numerous descendants of Dibble's are living in Guilford Village, Andrew P. Merchant, a founder and machinist, and Jane E. and Helen L. Merchant, both maiden ladies. Purley A. Merchant, of Guilford, son of Andrew P., is great-grandson of Dibble's.

    Matthew Seymour, a man named Hodge and Amasa Colburn came in previous to 1800. Seymour settled on the place now occupied by the widow of John P. Hall, at Guilford Center; and Hodge on the Anderson place. Colburn settled in the north part of the town, where his sons, Amasa and Azariah, now live, and died there, he and his wife, Experience, the former Dec. 15, 1860, aged 84, and the latter July 16, 1857, aged 83. Two daughters, Martha, widow of William Gunn, and Speedy, a maiden lady, are also living on the homestead. Zenas, the oldest son, died in Chautauqua county. Augusta, a daughter, who was born April 18, 1811, died March 16, 1866. Abigail, who was born April 18, 1805, married Dwight Ives, and both died in Mt. Upton, the former July 24, 1864, and the latter, who was born Sept. 22, 1804, Nov. 29, 1865.

    Settlements were made about 1800, by Major David Richmond, Abraham Ives, Colonel Stephen Winsor, Daniel Johnson, Elihu Murray, Joel and Aaron Root and Eliab Ford.

    Maj. Richmond came in from Rhode Island and settled at Latham's Corners. His house stood on the site of the one owned by David Wescott of Utica, and occupied at present by Emerson J. Potter. He died there Oct. 14, 1818, aged 71, and Nancy, his wife July 9, 1844, aged 94. His children were Joseph, Thomas, Polly, Esther, Nancy, David, who lived in Rhode Island, and Seth, who married Keziah Hunt and lived on the homestead till his death in June, 1879, at the age of 89 years. Joseph married Rizpah Hunt and settled on Richmond Pond, about five miles east of Norwich. His farm laid partly in Norwich and partly in New Berlin, but his house was in the latter town. He died there Jan. 25, 1853, aged 80, and his wife May 24, 1836, aged 61. Thomas married Lucy Durand and settled on the flats one-fourth mile above Latham's Corners. He afterwards removed to the Corners and built the rear part of Orson Richmond's residence and subsequently the front part. He lived there till well advanced in years when he went to live with his daughter Nancy, wife of John Holmes, of Smithport, Penn., and died there July 2, 1863, aged 86. His wife died May 14, 1857, aged 76. He and his brother Joseph were active, energetic men who did an extensive lumber business; the latter operated a saw-mill which was located at the mouth of Richmond Pond. Polly married Stephen Arnold and settled and died on the place now owned by Gordon Wood on the south line of Norwich. Esther married David Wescott and lived and died in Rhode Island. Nancy married Joseph Wood and lived and died on the David Cornell farm. Joseph's and David's children are all dead, and only one of Thomas' is living, Nancy Holmes of Smithport, Penn. None of the grandchildren are living in the county. The children of George A. Truesdell at Latham's Corners are great-grandchildren of Maj. Richmonds. Orson Richmond of Latham's Corners, whose wife Euphemia is a writer of some note, is a descendant of Major Richmond's. Mrs. Richmond has written some ten volumes of juvenile sabbath school and temperance works, has been a contributor to the Ladies' Respository, and is now a regular correspondent of the Northern Christian Advocate, The Watchword, the organ of the Good Templars, the Christian Woman, of Philadelphia, The Christian at Work, the Rural New Yorker, and various other publications.

    Abraham Ives came in from the New England States, and located in the Ives settlement one and one-half miles south of Guilford. He died there a great many years ago, and his wife, in 1827. His children were Samuel, who married Lucy Ann Atwater; Lyman, who married Lucy McCall; Elias, who married a sister of Lucy McCall; Abraham, who married Lois Rice; Clarissa who married Ozias Bush; Fanny who married Simon Trask; Merab, who married Elam Yale; Rosilla, who married Stephen Yale; and Eunice, who married Abijah Cornwall.

    Col. Stephen Winsor came from Rhode Island, and settled in the north edge of the town, where his grandson, Edson Winsor, now lives. He and his wife Mary, died on that place, the former Jan. 14, 1820, aged 75, and the latter Nov. 2, 1825, aged 76. His children were Joshua, Olney, Paris, Stephen, Wilkes, Eppenetis, and Selanah, all of whom are dead. Joshua, Olney and Paris settled in the locality of their father and raised up families. Joshua married Amy Cook, daughter of Gideon Cook, who died Feb. 18, 1818, aged 39, and for his second wife Chloe Davy, by whom he had two children, Joshua, now living in Norwich, and Amy, who died recently in Guilford. He had no children by his first wife. He died June 17, 1846, aged 72, and his second wife April 17, 1861, aged 76. Olney married Abigail Brown, in Rhode Island, and had a numerous family, only four of whom are living in this locality, Selanah, widow of John Monroe, and Abigail, wife of Lorenzo Burdick, at Polkville, Deloss, at White Store, and Olney J. at Bainbridge. He died April 17, 1842, aged 65, and his wife Aug. 10, 1858, aged 81. Paris married Ruth, daughter of Abner Wood and had several children, of whom Ziba is living in Norwich, Harmon, in Bainbridge, Eppenetis, in Guilford, Otis, in Greene, Roxana, widow of Otis Bowen in Norwich village, and Polly, wife of David Westcott, in Utica. He died July 6, 1840, aged 59, and his wife, Jan. 21, 1836, aged 49. Stephen died March 29, 1859, aged 72. Wilkes went west and died from effects of a wound received in the war of 1812. Selanah married George Cook, who died April 13, 1859, aged 82. She died March 28, 1848, aged 69. Numerous of their descendants are still living in that locality.

    Daniel Johnson settled on the farm now occupied by his grandson of the same name, about a mile south of the Center, and he and his son Seth died there. His children were Hiram, who married an Atwater, settled in the Ives settlement and died at his daughter's in Yaleville; Alpheus, who married Pomona, only sister of Daniel S. Dickinson, and kept a meat market in Guilford village a good many years and died there Nov. 24, 1841, aged 44; Mary, who married a man named Blake, of Coventry, where she now lives; Louisa, who married Lyman Bradley and lived in the Ives settlement; a daughter who married Abraham Pier and removed to Michigan; Seth, who married Jerusha Root and lived and died on the homestead. A brother of Johnson's came in at the same time and settled in the same locality, where both he and his wife died of fever at an early day. He left two daughters, Lovisa, who married Abial Bush and Lucy, who married Alba Lyman. Both lived and died in the town, the latter Jan. 17, 1840, aged 40 and her husband March 9, 1843, aged 54.

    Elihu Murray was a Revolutionary soldier and came here from Connecticut. He settled near Humphrey's Corners, on the farm now occupied by Sylvester Humphrey. He afterwards removed to the Center, where his son Dauphin built about fifty years ago the hotel, now occupied as a dwelling by H. H. Van Cott. He died there June 16, 1835, aged 82, and Lydia, his wife, July 7, 1836, aged 81. Dauphin kept the hotel a few years and removed to Hinsdale, Cattaraugus county, where he was killed by the cars. He had other children, but none of the names are now living here.

    Joel and Aaron Root were cousins. They came in from Great Barrington, Mass., and settled at Root's Corners, on the Gospel Lot, Joel, where Mr. Holliday now lives, and Aaron on the farm now occupied by his son Otis. Joel died where he settled, but Aaron gave up his farm to his youngest son and went to live with one of his children who had settled in Chautauqua county, where he died. Joel's children were Milton, who died in Guilford, aged 80 years; George, who was shot dead by accident; Lois; Fanny, who married William Spencer and after living here several years removed to Pennsylvania; a daughter who married Amos Havens; and William, his youngest son, who is living in Smithville and is the only one of the family left. Aaron's children were Amasa, Priscilla, who married and lived in Chautauqua county, and Otis.

    Eliab Ford was born in Canaan, Columbia county, N. Y., in 1772. He married Nabby Griswold in 1794, and in 1800 removed to Guilford. He settled on the farm now owned and occupied by B. F. Gregory, about a mile north of Rockdale, where he raised a large family. He died January 18, 1840, aged 68, and his wife November 27, 1847, aged 70. His children were: Ruth, who married Russell St. John; Clarissa, who married Amos Gregory; Russell, who married Cynthia W. Morgan; Patrick H., born December 17, 1800, and died May 20, 1843; Ransom, Enos J., Norman, Philetus and Eliab G., all of whom are dead except Philetus. Russell and Philetus were lawyers, and held many public offices. Russell was born February 28, 1799. He settled at Mount Upton, on the site of Place & Morse's store. He was a Justice for a great many years, and practiced law here from the time of his admission till his death, August 11, 1863. His wife, who was born May 24, 1805, died December 1, 1868. His children are: Merlin J., who married Cynthia I. Peck, both of whom, together with their children, Truman R. and Frederick, are living in Mount Upton; and Caroline M., who married Stephen P. Smith, of Pennsylvania, and is now living in Brownsdale, Minn.

    Oliver Ingersoll came from Great Barrington, Mass., about 1802, and settled on "Gospel hill," on the place now occupied by Chauncey Wade, where he lived till after the death of his wife, when he went to live with his son Lambert in Oxford, and died there. His children, all of whom were born in Massachusetts, were: Thomas H., Lambert, Lucretia, and Sally, who married in Massachusetts, and remained there; Eva, who married Harry Abby; Lovisa, who married Joshua Bush; David, who married Jerusha Tuttle; Peter, who removed to Chautauqua county and married there; none of whom are living. Lambert and Thomas H. were the only two who remained in the county. Lambert settled on the east line of Oxford, and afterwards removed to Oxford village, where he died September 16, 1849, aged 67. Polly, his wife, died March 16, 1867, aged 76. He had a large family, only four of whom are living; Ethan, on the old homestead; Marietta, wife of John L. Sherwood, in Guilford; Frederick, in Norwich; and Eliza, widow of Thomas Bishop, in Greene.

    Thomas Horton Ingersoll came from Great Barrington, Mass., in 1804, with his family, consisting of his wife, Elizabeth, also a native of Great Barrington, and three children, Hannah, David H. and William, and settled on "Gospel hill," about a mile west of Guilford, on the place now occupied by Harvey Brant. He continued to reside there till his death, June 16, 1810. His wife went to live with her son David at Castle Creek, Broome county, shortly before her death, which occurred June 22, 1841. Two children were born after they came here, Laman and Susan, the latter of whom is living in Guilford, and is the only survivor of her father's family. Hannah married Pelatiah Leonard, a native of Worthington, Mass., and removed to the town of New Berlin about 1818 or '19, and died May 9, 1868. David H. married Sally, daughter of Samuel Mills, and lived at Guilford Center till about 1838, when he removed to Castle Creek, and afterwards to Smithville, where he and his wife died, the former March 30, 1879, and the latter - May 21, 1862. William was a clothier, and worked a good deal in Binghamton, where he died unmarried, January 15, 1858, aged 55. Laman, who was born April 2, 1805, married Sarah, daughter of Asa Sherwood, and lived and died in Guilford village, December 30, 1863. He held various public offices, among them Justice for several years, Loan Commissioner and Member of Assembly, the latter in 1851. His wife still survives him, and is living with her son, Dr. Randall E. Ingersoll, in Guilford. Twelve grandchildren are living, but only three of them in the county, viz: Hannah, wife of A. C. Johnson, in Smithville; Mary E., widow of Miles W. Edmister, in Guilford; and H. Elizabeth, wife of Bishop B. Carruth, a Methodist minister now stationed at New Berlin.

    William Clark and Silas Hamilton, both from Wilmington, Vt., settled in the town in 1804. Clark located on the farm now occupied by Alson W. Mills, about two miles south-west of Rockdale, to which village he removed in 1827, and engaged in mercantile and milling business. In 1834 he sold his farm to Hewit Mills, and the following year was engaged on the Chenango Canal. He continued to reside at Rockdale till within seven years of his death, when he went to live with his daughter, Mrs. Sarah H. Bush, in the edge of Oxford, and died there. His children were Silas, who married Lavina Sherwood, of Oxford, removed to Susquehanna, Penn., about 1845, and is now living in Fond du Lac; Hannah, who married Chandler June, afterwards Ansel Quinby and subsequently Royal Smith, and is now living at Laona, N. Y.; Sally, who married Samuel H. Bush, and is now living in Oxford; Julia, who married Arvine Boyd, of Wilmington, Vt., where she is now living; Ransom, who married Elekse Locke, and is now living in Rockdale; Albert, who removed to Georgia, and married there, his wife dying soon after, he subsequently married Adaline Boyd, and continued to reside in Georgia till his death, which resulted from shooting at the hands of one of his negroes; DeWitt Clinton, who removed to Georgia, and died there of fever, unmarried; Elihu, who also removed to Brunswick, Ga., and married there, but died in Florida while transacting business there with his brother; and Clarissa, who died at the age of about 18 years.

    Silas Hamilton settled a mile west of Rockdale, on the farm now occupied by Leonard Manwaring, who married his grand-daughter. There he and Hannah, his wife, died, the former Aug. 7, 1816, aged 80, and the latter May 9, 1842, aged 97. His children were Hannah, who married Jonathan Lamb; Silas, who married Fanny Locke; Mercy, who married William Clark; Perses, who married Ira Locke; Hoit, who married but did not live with his wife, and died Dec. 25, 1863, aged 81; and Amos, who married Lydia Wooster, and after her death May 12, 1825, Polly, widow of David Clark. All are dead. Amos died Dec. 25, 1867, aged 83.

    Samuel A. Smith came in April, 1805, from Salem, Conn., where he was born Feb. 22, 1782, and settled two miles north of Guilford, at the corners which bear his name. The farm on which he settled, and where he died March 24, 1864, is now owned by Joseph Winsor. Dec. 25, 1806, he married Wealthy Phelps, who was born in Bolton, Conn., Oct. 18, 1785, and died Sept. 19, 1822. He afterwards married Hannah Thompson, who died Jan. 7, 1855, aged 73, and by whom he had no issue. He represented Chenango county in the Assembly in 1816-17, and again in 1820. He had six children by his first wife; Erastus Phelps; Sally Lavina, who was born Oct. 8, 1809, married Orin Merchant May 12, 1830, and died in the town Aug. 16, 1851; Abigail Eliza, who was born May 17, 1812, married Nathan Delavan Aug. 18, 1834, and died in the town Feb. 23, 1879; Lucia Ann, who was born Oct. 22, 1816, married Dr. John Clark Feb. 6, 1843, and is still living in Guilford, where her husband practiced medicine forty-one years; Wealthy May, who was born Oct. 17, 1818, married Lawrence Bryant, who was drowned in Lake Pepin, on the Mississippi, about 1851, and married after his death Frederick A. Bolles, of Unadilla, where she now resides; and William Augustus, who was born March 31, 1819, married Betsy Wade, of Guilford, and is now practicing medicine in Newark, N. J. and is Clerk of Essex county in that State. Erastus Phelps Smith was born Nov. 23, 1806. He married Betsy Mills, April 15, 1829, and lived upon the homestead until the death of his father, when, having been a lay reader in the Episcopal church, of Guilford, for thirty years, he entered the ministry, in conformity with a long cherished wish, but a step which he had long refrained from taking in deference to the wishes of his father, who strenuously opposed it. He was first rector at Sodus, Wayne county, afterwards at Whitewater, Wis., and subsequently at Hamilton, where he died while rector of St. Thomas' church in that village, Feb. 9, 1876. After the death of his first wife, March 22, 1843, he married Mary, widow of William Cable, who died March 6, 1860, aged 53. He subsequently married Nancy, widow of Dr. Hanford, of Hobart, Greene county, who is still living in Sherburne, with her only son, Homer Lucius Smith. Three daughters are living, Esther Case, wife of Edward Bradley, and Laura Arthusia, wife of Rufus N. Mills, in Guilford, and Betsey, wife of Harvey Shelton, in Norwich.

    Simon Trask came in from Massachusetts about 1800, and settled in Preston. He removed thence in 1806 to Guilford, and settled about four miles south-east of Guilford village, on the farm now occupied by George Ferris, where he died Jan. 18, 1831, aged 56. Fanny, his wife, who afterwards married Ozias Bush, died July 4, 1865, aged 83. His children were seven in number four of whom came in with him. They were Almon, who married Lucinda Richmond, Samuel Ives, who married Lucretia Maria Rose; Alice, who married John S. Mitchell; Simon, who married Jane Crane; Clarissa, who married Arvine Mann; and George, who married Julia Hickok. Only two are living, Samuel I., in Guilford, and George in Illinois. Fanny died in infancy soon after they came in. The whole family were then sick with fever and ague, and this induced their removal to Guilford.

    Settlements were made in 1807 by Daniel Thomas Dickinson and Samuel Mills, both of whom came from Connecticut, the form from Goshen and the latter from Norfolk. Dickinson settled one and one-half miles north of Guilford Center, on fifty acres, to which he subsequently added at different times 200 acres. The place has since been cut up into three farms, which are now occupied by Joseph Winsor, James Decker and A. Reynolds. The Dickinson family is a prominent and highly reputable one and has been made conspicuous by at least one of its members both in the State and nation. Mr. Dickinson married Mary, daughter of Roswell Caulkins, of Salem, Conn., and sister of Hon. Samuel A. Smith's mother. He continued to reside here till his death Sept. 17, 1841, aged 74, and raised a family of sturdy, stalwart children---stalwart both intellectually and physically. His wife died April 1, 1831, aged 61. His children were Erastus, William Frederick, Ann Pomona, who married Alpheus Johnson, and is now living in Afton, aged 81 years, Daniel Stevens, Thomas, Ralph, who died in Goshen at the age of four years, John Ralph, and Mary Sophronia, who died at the age of five years.

    Erastus Dickinson married Betsey, daughter of Chester Morse, who came in from Massachusetts and settled and died in Guilford. Erastus took up a farm of 100 acres three miles west of Mt. Upton, which is now owned in part by Rufus J. Humphrey. He lived there till well advanced in years and afterwards in Guilford village. He subsequently removed to Ellicottville, Cattaraugus county, and finally to DeWitt, Iowa, where he died some ten or twelve years ago. He was a soldier in the war of 1812. He was a man of great physical endurance, as was also his brother William F., either of whom could chop an acre of heavy timber in four days. He held the office of Justice here a good many years, and was Side Judge one term. He represented this county in the Assembly in 1844.

    William Frederick Dickinson married Polly, daughter of Alexander McNeil, of Oxford, and settled a mile east of his father, on 65 acres, which he afterwards increased to 100. He afterwards removed to the homestead and died there Aug. 17, 1851, aged 56, from the result of an injury received by falling from a fence with a scythe, which cut his hand badly. In sewing up the wound the doctor accidentally caught one of the nerves and amputation at the wrist became necessary. He afterwards suffered a second amputation. The injury finally affected his brain and resulted in death some ten years after. He held the office of Deputy Sheriff several terms. His wife died June 19, 1846, aged 45.

    Daniel Stevens Dickinson was born in Goshen, Litchfield county, Conn., Sept. 11, 1800, the date of Commodore Perry's victory on Lake Erie. He received a common-school education, and without the aid of an instructor mastered the Latin language and became versed in the higher branches of mathematics and other sciences. He learned the trade of carding and cloth dressing in the factory of Chauncey W. Morse, which was located on the turnpike about three miles south-east of Guilford. In 1821 he entered upon the duties of a school teacher, and in 1826 he commenced the study of law at Norwich with Lot Clark and John Clapp, still devoting three months of each winter to teaching. In 1828, before the completion of his studies, he was regularly admitted to practice at the instance of his preceptor, having within two years, notwithstanding the diversion of teaching, mastered all that was required of him. He commenced practice at Guilford Center, where he continued some six years, when, his ambition demanding a broader field of operations, he removed to Binghamton, where his genius soon brought him into prominence, both as a lawyer and politician, and where he continued to reside till his death. In 1836 he was elected State Senator from the Sixth District, and served in that capacity from 1837-'40. He was Judge of the Court of Errors from 1836 to 1841; and from 1842 to 1844, by his election to the office of Lieutenant-Governor, was President of that Court, also of the State Senate. He was a Regent of the University in 1843, a member of the Convention which nominated J. K. Polk for President, and a Presidential Elector at Large in 1844. He was in the United States Senate from 1844 to 1851, and while a member of that body served on important committees, and originated and ably supported several important measures. In 1861 he was elected Attorney-General of the State, and served two years. He was delegate to the Baltimore Convention in 1864; and in 1865 was appointed by President Lincoln United States District Attorney for the Southern District of New York. He died suddenly in New York city while in the discharge of the duties of that office, April 12, 1866. Before accepting the last position, he declined several appointments tendered him by the President of the United States and the Governor of this State. His Life and Works were published in 1867, in two volumes. He married Lydia, daughter of Dr. Colby Knapp, of Guilford.

    Thomas Dickinson was born Jan. 23, 1803. He married Eliza, daughter of Seth Thompson, of Hartford, Conn., and settled on the homestead, where he lived till about 1847. He afterwards removed from a farm a mile north of Guilford in 1871, to the farm he now occupies, near that village. He was Deputy Sheriff two terms, under A. C. Welch and Romeo Warren; has been Justice of the Peace since 1835, with the exception of two and one-half terms; and Notary Public eight terms, an office he still retains.

    John Ralph Dickinson married Julia Ann Booth, and settled first on the homestead in Guilford, engaged a part of the time in teaching. He removed to Binghamton about 1831, and was for several years teller of the Broome County Bank, which was established that year. He had commenced the study of law before going to Binghamton, and completed his legal studies there with his brother, Daniel S. He was admitted and practiced law, and afterwards became a Judge in Broome county. He was for several years editor and proprietor of the Binghamton Democrat. From Binghamton he went to New York and engaged as a Clerk in the Custom-House. He was afterwards engaged in banking business in Chicago with his brother-in-law, James H. Woodruff. He is now Clerk in the Land Office at Washington.

    Deacon Samuel Mills was soldier in the war for Independence. He settled at Guilford Center, on the farms now owned by Alexander Burton and Horace Wade, where he died of cancer, Jan. 17, 1837, aged 83, also his wife Lucy, Nov. 9, 1826, aged 73. He had six children, only two of whom came with him, Charlotte and Calvin. The others, Abram, Hewit, Samuel and Daniel came the year following. Charlotte married Ira Bradley, who came in from Stockbridge, Massachusetts, about 1810, and settled on land taken up by her father, where he started a tannery in company with his brother-in-law, which they operated some twenty-five years. He afterwards removed to the Ives settlement, where he died Sept. 4, 1856, aged 69, and his wife May 21, 1833, aged 44. Calvin married Sophia Rogers and settled about one and one-half miles east of East Guilford. He afterwards removed to the town of Alden in Erie county, where both he and his wife died. Abram, who was born June 2, 1778, married Esther Harris (whose father came from Say brook, Connecticut, about 1808,) and settled just north of his father, on the farm now owned by Wm. Hove of Norwich, and occupied by Charles Miner. He removed thence to Jasonville, and died at Sidney, Nov. 30, 1864. His wife died April 21, 1854, aged 78. Hewit married "Claraisa" Whiting and settled on a farm adjoining his father's on the south, the one now occupied by Ransom Hovey, where his wife died May 12, 1813, aged 27. He afterwards married the widow of Philinda Brazar and removed to Shaver's Corners (E. Guilford,) where he died Sept. 10, 1848, aged 62. Philinda died April 3, 1831, aged 40. His son Alston now occupies the farm on which he died. Samuel married Sally Coburn and was engaged in tanning and currying in company with Ira Bradley. He afterwards removed to Castle Creek, Broome county, where he and his wife died. Daniel married Sarah Harris of Saybrook, Connecticut, and settled about one and one-fourth miles north of Guilford, on the Norwich road, on the farm now owned and occupied by Erastus Carhart, where his wife died July 17, 1833, aged 53. When advanced in years he went to live with his son Uri in Poughkeepsie, where he died. He had lost his right arm before he came in, through bleeding and subsequent malpractice. Several of Deacon Mills' descendants are living in the town. Two grand-children, Lucy and Sarah, daughters of Calvin, became the wives of missionaries to China.

    Ira Locke removed from Wilmington, Vermont, in 1801, to Brookfield, Madison county, and thence in 1808, to Guilford. He settled about three-fourths of a mile west of Rockdale, on the farm now owned and occupied by his son Herman J., where he died Jan. 19, 1852, and his wife Perses, Jan. 2, 1864. His children were Asenath who married Wilsey H. Scott, and lived and died, she and her husband, in Nineveh, Broome county; Sophia, who married Gurdon Morgan and lives in Unadilla, where her husband died some years ago; Elekse, who married Ransom Clark, and is now living at Rockdale; Hephzibah, who married Arvine Clark and is now living in Wellsburg, Chemung county; Hiram, who married Olive Hyer is now living in Bainbridge; Herman J., who married Esther Sliter and is now living on the homestead; and Hannah, who married William P. Peabody and is living in Butternuts.

    Ira B. McFarland, a native of Kinderhook, Columbia county, removed thence with his parents to Otsego, and subsequently to Sidney Plains, from which place he removed to Guilford about 1809, with his wife, Polly, daughter of Captain Solomon Fenton of New Haven, Conn. He engaged in farming near Guilford village, working by the month, and afterwards squatted on land belonging to Peter Livingston, on the east side of Guilford Pond. In April, 1816, he removed his family to Oxford and taught school seven winters and one summer in succession. He then bought 30 acres three miles below Oxford village, on the west side of the river, on which, with the additions made thereto from time to time, making the whole 150 acres, he now resides in his 90th year, (he was 89 Aug. 30, 1878.) His wife died during the recent year. They had eight children, seven of whom reached maturity; Edwin Ferris, who married Abigail, daughter of David Simmons, and engaged in teaching, removing about 1842 to Kentucky, where he resumed teaching, and died of consumption about 1858; Orson Lawrence, who married Julia, daughter of William Holmes, was engaged in farming here and in Steuben county, and subsequently in carpentering, and is now keeping a grocery in Troopsburgh, Steuben county; Jane, who died at the age of seven; Betsey, who married Cyrus Horton, and died in Norwich, where her husband was a molder; Maria, who married Erastus Briggs and died on the homestead farm four or five years ago; Solomon, who married Hannah Folger, and is now practicing medicine in Oxford; Henry, who married Sarah Horton, and is practicing dentistry in Oxford; and Charles Arthur, who married Charlotte Webb and is living on the homestead farm, which was transferred to him by his father.

    Deacon Jesse Whiting came in from Norfolk, Conn., in 1810, and settled a mile north of Guilford Center, on the farm occupied until recently by Philip Miner. About 1836 he removed to Masonville, where he died April 22, 1845, aged 82. Hannah, his wife, died Jan. 23, 1852, aged 86. His children were Deacon Erastus B., who was born in Norfolk, Conn., Aug. 18, 1807, married Arthusa Mills, and died May 8, 1857, and his wife, July 26, 1863, aged 59; Julius, who married Lucinda Payne, and died Dec. 29. 1842, aged 58, and his wife, Aug. 4, 1848, aged 62; John F., who married Roxana Dickinson; Claraisa, who married Hewit Mills; and Hiram, who died in Norfolk, Conn., before they moved here. None of the children, and but few of the descendants are living. Only three grandchildren are living in the county, Edwin M. and Hiram L. Whiting in Guilford, and Lucy, wife of William M. Hovey, in Norwich.

    William Place settled in the town about 1812; William Gunn, about 1813; and Roger Williams, in February, 1818. Place, who was a stone-mason, settled near Mt. Upton on a small lot which now forms a part of Cyrenus Chamberlayne's farm. He afterwards removed to the locality of Rockwell's Mills, to the place now occupied by his daughters, Mary Ann, widow of Seth D. Richmond, and Harriet, a maiden lady, where he and his wife Sally died. He died Sept 18, 1827, aged 48, and his wife, Feb. 23, 1870, aged 84. His other children were Hiram G., who married Betsey Thayer, and lived and died in the town Aug. 16, 1874, aged 67; Foster, who married Lucinda Wheeler, and after her death Minerva Hayes, and is now living in Mt. Upton; Helen, who married John Blackman, and lived and died in Mt. Upton; Sally, who married Alpheus Newman, and is now living in Addison, Steuben county; Fields, who married Ursula Peck, and after her death Amy Newton, and is now living near Latham's Corners; Ulrica, who died when ten or twelve years old; Wm., who died in childhood; Mahala, who married Willard Leach, and settled in Norwich, where both died; and Alaxeronia, who married Nelson Green and afterwards Chauncey Graves, and is now living at Latham's Corners. Several descendants are living in the town. Horace Place, a dry goods merchant at Mt. Upton, is a grandson of William's.

    William Gunn was a native of Cambridge, N. Y., and removed thence to Guilford in 1810. He settled on the Unadilla at Rockwell's Mills, where he built in the following year the first carding and cloth-dressing establishment in the county. The building stood on the site of Rockwell's stone mill and was burned at an early day. He soon after formed a co-partnership with Joseph Richmond and erected a sizable building on the same site and engaged in the manufacture of cotton and woolen cloths. The building was three stories high above the basement, which was used as a machine shop. The first and third stories were occupied with cotton machinery, and the second floor, with woolen machinery. The building was erected about 1813 or '14, and was burned in the winter of 1831. Gunn sold his interest about 1828 to -------- Stewart and Paris Andrews, having a few years previously dissolved partnership with Richmond, who took for his share the cotton machinery, which was considered about half the value of machinery and fixtures, retaining a half interest in the building till it was burned. Richmond continued the manufacture of cotton cloths till about 1829, when he leased the property to Mr. Webb, of Norwich, who was carrying on business when the mill was burned. Stewart & Andrews carried on the manufacture of woolen cloths up to the same period, when the site and mill privileges were sold to William Browne, of New York City, who erected a stone building and continued the manufacture of cotton goods, with Webb as his agent, some five or six years, when he failed, and the machinery was taken out and sold and the building never after used as a cotton manufactory. The property then passed into the hands of Amasa Ballou, who carried on the manufacture of woolen goods till it came into the possession of the Rockwells in 1849, though but little was done for some years previous to that time.

    William Gunn continued to reside there till his death Jan. 19, 1830, at the age of 54 years. He was twice married: Abigail, his first wife, died May 16, 1816, aged 34, and Phila, his second wife, Sept. 19, 1826, aged 43. Three of his children are living, Cynthia, widow of Charles Latham, at Rockwell's Mills, Sophia, wife of Samuel Churchill, in Iowa, and William H., a Justice of the Peace in Norwich village.

    Roger Williams, a descendant of Roger Williams, of New England, whose fame has made him a national character, came in from Gloucester, R. I., and settled at the head of Cable Pond, now known as Guilford Pond, on lot 49. In 1834 he removed to Guilford and worked out by the day; and in 1839, to Guilford Center, to the farm now occupied by his son Anthony, where he and his son-in-law, John Harrington, carried on the cabinet business. He died there Sept. 30, 1878, aged 88. His children were Anthony, now living at Guilford Center; Freelove, who married John Harrington and died in Ohio about six years ago; Amanda, who married George Gould, of Herkimer county, and died about thirty years ago; George, who died unmarried June 6, 1873; Alice, who married Peter Van Valkenburgh, subsequently Daniel Bateman, and is still living in Michigan; and Ann, who married Anthony Rasbech, and is still living in Jefferson county.

    Other early settlers, some of them among the first, though we have been unable to determine the exact date, were Roswell Morgan, Asa Haven, Captain Joseph Latham, John Eddy, who settled in the north part of the town, on the farm first taken up by Dr. James Mason, and afterwards occupied by Ollis Bowen, and died there April 11, 1820, aged 53, and Captain Abner Wood, who also settled in the north part of the town and died there in October, 1821, aged 76.

    Roswell Morgan, was born at Stonington, Conn., in 1764, and married Cynthia Witter in 1786. He was a captain in the American army during the Revolution, and after the close of the war, in which he was wounded, removed to Guilford and settled on the farm now owned and occupied by George Anderson, about a mile north of Rockdale, upon which he raised a family and there died. He, his wife and some of his children are buried in the cemetery upon that farm. His children were Elijah, Lucy, who married Godfrey Gardner, Nathan, Ebenezer, Jasper, Gordon, John, Thomas B., Cynthia W., who married Russell Ford, father of M. J. Ford of Mt. Upton, Roswell B. and Warham W., all of whom are dead, except Thomas B., now living in Coventry, and Roswell B., living in Fredonia, Chautauqua county.

    Asa Haven settled on the farm adjoining that of Silas Wheeler on the west of the one now occupied by E. F. Curtis, where he died Sept. 12, 1856, aged 79. Among his children were Solomon G., who lived in Buffalo, was an associate with Millard Fillmore in the practice of law, represented Erie county in Congress from 1851 to 1857, and died in Buffalo, Dec. 24, 1861; Hiram, who removed to Pennsylvania; John who removed to the town of Pitcher when a young man; James, who lived and died in Buffalo, where he was in the law office of his brother Solomon G., Alfred, the youngest of the boys, who went west and is now editor of the Faribault (Minn.,) Democrat; Sarah, who married a Dowd and lived in Pitcher; Polly who married and removed to Michigan; and Jan, who married Henry, nephew of Gen. Welch, of New Berlin and subsequently removed to California, where she died. Haven after the death of his wife, who was a daughter of John Eastwood, married the widow Sykes, whose son Charles P. Sykes, has been somewhat prominent, was at one time manager of Pomeroy's Democrat, and is now interested in silver mining in Arizona. Haven had three children by his second wife, Harriet, who is living with her brother in Faribault, Minn., Caroline, who married Dr. S. Hinman of East Homer, and Euphemia, who married west and died in LaCrosse, Wis.

    Capt. Joseph Latham came from Stonington, Conn., his native place, and, like many others of the early settlers, desiring to escape the malarial diseases which prevailed to an alarming extent in the low lands, settled upon the hill about four miles west of Latham's Corners, named for his son Henry B., who settled there after marrying. Latham brought with him his wife, who was a Denison, a native of Stonington, where they married, and six children, Stanton, Alexander, John, Henry B., Paul W., and George D. Alexander and Paul were bachelors and sea captains. Stanton died at sea; Alexander, on the homestead in Guilford; and Paul in Norwich, to which village he removed after having followed the sea some 25 years. John married Hannah Denison and settled two miles west of Latham's Corners. He was elected County Clerk in 1842, (which office he held three years,) and removed to Norwich, where he afterwards lived and died, both he and his wife, having, after the expiration of his official term, served as book-keeper for H. H. Haynes for eleven years, and till within about a year of his death. Henry B. married Jerusha, daughter of A. Latimer, of New London, whose house was one of the first destroyed at the burning of that town during the Revolution. Henry carried on blacksmithing at Oxford and subsequently at the Corners which bear his name where he also engaged in farming and kept tavern, the latter for thirty-three years. He died there in June, 1853. His widow is living, aged 93, (July, 1879) with her son Joseph H. Latham, a hardware merchant in Norwich, where he has carried on that business for twenty years as principal and four years as clerk for H. H. Haynes. George married Amanda Everett and settled in Guilford, removing thence to Oxford, where he educated his daughters, and afterwards to Illinois, where he is now living.

    TOWN OFFICERS.---The first town meeting was held at the house of Jehial Parsons on Tuesday, March 1, 1814, and the following named officers were elected:---

    Supervisor---Samuel Smith.
    Clerk---Daniel T. Dickinson.
    Assessors---Abijah Cornwell, Benjamin Green and Paris Winsor.
    Commissioners of Highways---Stephen Yale, Joseph Wood and Edy Phetteplace.
    Poormasters---Daniel Johnson and Paris Winsor.
    School Commissioners---Justus Eastman, Thornton Wasson and Oliver H. Everitt.
    Constables---Abiram Mills, Ira Locke and Ira Hayes.
    Collector---Abiram Mills.
    School Inspectors---Samuel A. Smith, Perry Packer, Colby Knapp, John Z. Saxton, Justus Eastman, David Harris, Jr., and Lyman Ives.
    Pound Keepers and Fence Viewers---Caleb Copper, Daniel Johnson, Amos Burlison, Samuel Kent, Asa Gregory, John Akin, Jr., Ezekiel Wheeler, Jr., and Jehial Parsons.

    For the following list of the officers of the town of Guilford, elected 1880, we are indebted to E. A. Whiting:---

    Supervisor ---George H. Baldwin.
    Town Clerk---E. A. Whiting.
    Justice---Seth Phillips.
    Assessor---Cy. Chamberlain.
    Commissioner of Highways---H. A. Burlison.
    Overseer of the Poor---Franklin Robinson.
    Constables---T. R. Ford, A. R. Warner, E. H. Beckweth, Oliver S. Ferris.
    Collector---Elnathan Bromley.
    Inspectors of Election---District No. 1: P. Rood, E. D. Arms, Albert Day. District No. 2: George Bradbury, L. S. Pearsall, N. D. Bartle.
    Town Auditors---F. S. Clark, Austin Miller and Lucius Shelton.
    Sealer of Weights and Measures--- ------ ---------
    Game Constable---Silas Root.
    Excise Commissioner---George W. Angell.


    Guilford is pleasantly situated on Guilford creek, which has a fall of 140 feet in its course through the village, and affords a very valuable water-power. This stream is fed in part by Guilford pond, which lies just north of the village, and during high water periods covers about 150 acres. The village is surrounded by hills of moderate elevation and generally susceptible of cultivation to their summits. It was formerly known as Fayette, the original name of the township, but on the establishment of the postoffice the name of the postoffice originally established at Guilford Center was assumed, to avoid confusion with the postoffice of a similar name in Onondaga county. Though less early developed into the magnitude of a village than its rival one and one-half miles east, it has far outstripped that in commercial importance. It is situated on the Midland Railroad, and is distant about six miles from Oxford and nine from Norwich. It contains three churches, (Episcopal, Methodist Episcopal and Baptist,) one district school, one hotel, three general stores, one hardware store, one grocery and one drug store, one newspaper office, (The Guilford Wave,) one grist-mill, one saw and feed-mill, a shingle and planning-mill, a furniture and cheese-box manufactory, a foundry and machine shop, three blacksmith shops, (kept by H. Eckerson, G. H. Delavan and John Markert,) one wagon shop (kept by James Brandt,) a carpenter and joiner shop (kept by Haynes & Miller,) a butter-tub manufactory, (kept by J. M. Laraway,) two harness shops, (kept by W. W. Day and Rufus Smith,) and a population of about 300.

    MERCHANTS.---The merchants at Guilford were: William Cable and his son William W., who came in shortly previous to 1800 and opened a store soon after 1807, and continued to trade until 1830, when Daniel P. Cable, another son, bought the business and continued it till about 1847, when he went to New York, and died there in 1870.

    William D. Gilbert, father of Dr. Rufus H. Gilbert, the originator of the elevated railway in New York, and whose father, Abner Gilbert, was an early settler about three miles north-west of Guilford, opened a store about 1836 and traded till about 1844, when he went to Caton, in Steuben county, where he now resides, having been postmaster there about twenty years.

    Asa T. Sherwood was an early merchant, and had discontinued trade previous to 1828. His store stood opposite to that now occupied by N. D. Bartle. It was removed opposite the cabinet shop of Bradley & Winsor, and afterwards across the road, by Thomas Dickinson, brother of Daniel S. Dickinson, and was occupied by him as a dwelling. It has since been torn down.

    Eastman, Spaulding & Co., locally known as "East India Co.," were early and prominent merchants.

    The present merchants are: Daniel Beebe, M. V. B. Winsor, K. E. Bunnell, John F. Sherwood, N. D. Bartle and Jacobs A. Haynes.

    Daniel Beebe, general merchant, came in from Hartwick, May 1, 1844, and has since carried on business here. He was associated with his son, Daniel Dwight Beebe, from the summer of 1852 till October, 1863. He first rented the store occupied by William D. Gilbert, and afterwards bought it. It was burned April 19, 1864. He then rented a building, which he occupied till is present store was built, in 1873. Mr. Beebe is now (July, 1879,) in his 88th year.

    Martin VanBuren Winsor, general merchant, is continuing a business which was established by Harrott & Erkson in the spring of 1867. In 1868, R. E. Bunnell bought Harrot's interest, which he sold to M. V. B. Winsor in the spring of 1870, when the firm name became Erkson & Winsor. In 1873, Erkson sold his interest to Geo. W. Dexter, who sold to Mr. Winsor, the present proprietor, in 1878.

    K. Eugene Bunnell, hardware merchant, commenced the dry goods business in the fall of 1869, in company of Jno. E. Erkson, and April 10, 1871, sold his interest to M. V. B. Winsor. Sept. 1, 1871, he bought out I. H. Willoughby and Andrew Burton, hardware merchants, and Nov. 1, 1873, he took in as partner Albert R. Brown, whose interest he purchased March 1, 1879. He is still associated with Mr. Brown in the manufacture of the "iron-clad milk-pan," which business they commenced in the winter of 1874. They have two patents on that article, one obtained in the spring of 1874, the other in 1876. They also manufacture a butter salting scale and the "Arctic Creamery," for setting milk.

    John F. Sherwood, druggist, grocer and boot and shoe dealer, commenced business in 1871 in company with his brother E. C. Sherwood. They sold after about a year to their brother H. M. Sherwood, of whom they originally bought, and who had previously done business some five or six years. In 1874, H. M. Sherwood sold to Newton D. Bartle from Oxford, and Leroy C. Hayes. Mr. Bartle bought Mr. Hayes' interest at the expiration of about a year, and still carries on a general mercantile business. J. F. Sherwood resumed business in 1874, in company with his brother E. C., whose interest he bought May 1, 1878.

    Jacob A. Haynes, grocer, commenced business Oct. 23, 1876.

    POSTMASTERS.---The post-office was established in Guilford in 1838, and Erastus Dickinson was the first postmaster. He held the office till 1841, when Dr. John Clark was appointed. He was succeeded in 1845, by Daniel P. Cable, who held it till his removal to New York, about 1849. Dr. John Clark was again appointed June 22, 1849, and probably held it till 1853. John Hall, Jr., next held it till 1861, when Nathan W. Cady was appointed and held it till his death in Dec., 1875. Geo. W. Dexter, the present postmaster, was next appointed, in January, 1876.

    PHYSICIANS.---Guilford was supplied at an early day by physicians who had located at the Center, which was then the largest village of the two. John Clark, M. D., was, we believe, the first physician who located here and he occupied the field till his death, March 15, 1874, at the age of 61 years, and exclusively with the exception of his son, Richard M., and Dr. Spencer, both of whom are still practicing here.

    Dr. John Clark was born in Mayfield, Fulton county, N. Y., Dec. 10, 1812. He studied medicine with Dr. Charles Chambers of Broadalbin, N. Y., and was graduated at Fairfield Medical College in 1832, shortly before he had attained his majority. He removed to Guilford in April, 1833, and practiced his profession here till his death. Feb. 6, 1843, he married Lucia Ann, daughter of Samuel A. Smith, by whom he had three children, John who is a lawyer in Ithaca, and Paris G., and Richard M., twins, both of whom are practicing physicians, the former in Rochester and the latter in Guilford. His widow is still living in Guilford.

    Dr. Richard M. Clark was born in Guilford, Oct. 17, 1845, and studied medicine there with his father Dr. John Clark. He entered Bellevue Hospital Medical College, New York, in 1866, and was graduated there March 1, 1868. He commenced practice that month and year with his father in Guilford and was thus associated till the death of the latter in 1874. In that year his brother Paris G., who also studied medicine with his father and was graduated at the same time and place as himself, removed from Rochester, where he had been practicing, and formed a co-partnership with him, which continued two years. Paris G., then returned to Rochester, where he is still practicing.

    Dr. Marshall D. Spencer was born in Triangle, Broome county, N. Y., May 23, 1833. He studied medicine with his father, Dr. S. L. Spencer, at Triangle, till the death of the latter June 1858, from a dissection wound received while holding an autopsy. He afterwards pursued his studies with Josiah G. Beckwith and George Seymour of Litchfield, Conn. In 1854-55 he attended medical lectures at the University of New York, and was licensed by the Broome County Medical Society July 23, 1859. He commenced practice in Halsey Valley, Tioga county, in 1855, and in April, 1856, removed to Guilford, where he has since practiced.

    Dr. Harry P. Guy was born in Harpersville, Broome county, Dec. 20, 1848. He studied medicine at that place with his father Ezekiel Guy, and was graduated at Geneva Medical College March 12, 1875. He commenced practice at Cooperstown, where he remained till April, 1877, when he removed to Guilford and formed a co-partnership with Dr. Richard M. Clark, which still continues.

    MANUFACTURES.---The Guilford Iron Works, of which Andrew Bradbury is proprietor, were established in 1845, by Andrew Bradbury and Niram R. Merchant, in a building erected about 1838 for a plaster-mill, by William D. Gilbert, and used for that purpose till about 1842. The building was subsequently occupied for a short time as a cotton-batten factory by Asahel Edson. It was swept away by a freshet in 1855, and the present building was erected the same year by Messrs. Bradbury and Merchant, who carried on the business of founders and machinists till the death of Mr. Merchant, Dec. 24, 1863, having been associated with Orin G. Merchant, brother of Niram, from 1847 to 1855. Andrew Bradbury has conducted the business alone since the death of his partner, though the latter's heirs still retain his interest in it. Mr. Bradbury does a general foundry and machine business, including the manufacture of mill gearing, corn crackers, the latest improved Teed's and Merchant's water-wheels, shingle mills and edgers, planers and matchers, single and combined, dog powers and iron and brass castings, making a specialty of planers and matchers and water-wheels. About eight men are employed in the shops. The motive power is furnished by a Merchant water-wheel, the invention of Andrew P. Merchant, which is driven by water from Guilford Creek, with a head and fall of fourteen feet. Andrew P. Merchant is engaged in these shops in the manufacture of a patent coopers' doweling machine, which was invented by his father and patented by him in 1861. The son patented an improvement in 1876. About 10,000 of the machines have been manufactured and the demand for them is steadily increasing.

    The Guilford Mills, flouring and grist, owned by Charles A. Winsor and W. O. Nash, were built in 1839, by Jonas Haynes, Orin G. Merchant and Nathan Delevan, who carried on the business in company for several years. The present proprietors bought the mills in 1877, of Aldrich Winsor, father of Charles A. Winsor, who had operated them some 17 years. They contain three run of stones, which are propelled by water from Guilford Creek, with a fall of 32 feet, furnished by two dams, the lower being 18 and the upper 14 feet. This is the third building on this site. The first was built about the beginning of the century, by a man named May; the second in 1822, by Lemuel and Anson Jewell, who sold to Haynes & Smith. The first contained one run of stones, and stood a little above the present one. The second one stood in the rear of the present one, and was torn down when it was built. The second one was driven by an over-shot wheel; so also was the present one for a number of years. The change to the Goodwin wheel now in use was made in 1867.

    Haynes & Miller (Jonas S. Haynes and George C. Miller,) do a general carpenter business, and operate a planning, matching, cider and shingle-mill. The erection of the shop was begun in 1859 by Lorenzo M. Belden, who expended some $2,000 in blasting for a wheel-pit and tail-race and in constructing the frame, when, having exhausted his means, he sold to Aaron Bradley, who finished the building, and put in machinery for doing a general carpenter business, which he carried on till 1866, when he sold to Jonas S. Haynes and Jonas Haynes Bradley, who did business about two years, after which the former continued till 1874, having been associated at different times with Frank S. Clark and John Phillips of Utica. In 1874, George C. Miller bought Phillip's interest, and the business has since been conducted by the present proprietors. Shingle making was added to the business in 1874, and cider making in 1876. They make about 200,000 shingles per annum, and 400 to 500 barrels of cider during the season. The motive power is furnished by Guilford Creek, with a fall of 21 feet. The dam is ten feet high, and is built of wood and braced with timbers secured to the rocks with iron pins.

    J. M. Laraway has been engaged in the manufacture of butter tubs and croquet sets since 1876. The business was established by R. C. Norton, who conducted it several years. Mr. Laraway makes about 600 butter tubs and 100 to 200 croquet sets per year. Guilford Creek furnishes the motive power; fall 7½ feet.

    Bradley & Winsor (Aaron Bradley and Eppenetis Winsor,) are furniture dealers and cheese box manufacturers. They commenced the business in 1871, in which year they bought the building, which was formerly the old Guilford tannery, and was subsequently raised one story. The manufacture of cheese boxes was commenced in 1878, in which year between 5,000 and 6,000 were made.

    It is a fact worthy of mention in connection with the manufacturing interests of this town that the first organ made west of the North River was constructed in this town, about 1819, by Elsworth Phelps, who was something of a musical prodigy, and was then about sixteen years of age. This organ was made at the house of Hon. Samuel A. Smith, with whom Phelps was then living, about two miles north of Guilford. The pipes were constructed of wood. It was a parlor organ, and was sold to a gentleman living in Oxford. The manufacture of organs was soon after begun one-half mile north of Guilford Center, and Phelps, who was without means, was voicer and tuner, a very important branch of the organ manufacture. It developed into an important business, and was carried on by different individuals for several years. Nathan P. Holt was the last to engage in that business here. He continued it for a number of years, and so long as he was able to do anything, employing three hands. Phelps afterwards discovered the secret of making lead pipes for organs from a man in New York, who was then the only one in this country who understood the process, and he was the first to introduce that feature of the organ manufacture in this country outside of New York.

    HOTELS.---The hotel in Guilford is kept by C. M. Feek, who came in from Oxford, where he had previously kept hotel, March 31, 1879. The building occupies the site of the tavern kept by John Dibble in 1798. The addition to it was built in 1855 by Timothy Dimock, who was then keeping the hotel.

    CHURCHES. ---Guilford may very properly be denominated the town of churches, a name which is sometimes applied to it. It has no less than fifteen churches, two of which are union churches, representing several denominations, some of whom have organized societies.

    Christ Church in the Town of Guilford, at Guilford village, was organized Sept. 9, 1830, under the missionary labors of Rev. Ephraim Punderson, who presided at a meeting on that day of "the male persons of full age belonging to the church, congregation and society worshiping in the village of Guilford Center, at the Center academy," for the purpose of incorporating under the statutes. Eleazer H. Fitch and Dauphin Murray were chosen returning officers; and Nathan P. Holt and Charles Bolt were elected wardens, and Dauphin Murray, Benjamin S. Twitchel, Jno. F. Whiting, Eleazer H. Fitch, Anson Hayden, Thomas Dickinson, Daniel S. Dickinson and Jonah Moses, vestrymen. The first members in addition to those above named were Benjamin Skinner, Daniel T. Dickinson, Elsworth Phelps, A. E. Knapp, J. R. Dickinson, A. C. Moses, Hiram Birdsall, Clark Dickinson, Samuel A. Smith, E. P. Smith, Orin G. Merchant, Alpheus Johnson, Tunis Sharts, W. Cable, Daniel P. Cable, William D. Gilbert, Niram R. Merchant, Orlando S. Gilbert, Zimri Belden, Caleb Winsor, William Ingersoll, Roswell A. Morse, Warren A. Starkey, Jno. D. Laraway and George Sharts.

    Services had been conducted some six years previous to this organization. Solomon Blakeslee's name is the first of the rectors which occurs in the records. He seems to have served only a year. He preached every other Sunday.

    October 31, 1833, the first official action was taken with reference to the building of a church, which was erected the following year on a lot purchased of William Cable. The corner-stone was laid by Bishop Onderdonk, June 11, 1834, at which time there were only two communicants, and Francis Tremayne was the rector. Orin G. and Niram R. Merchant, carpenters, were largely instrumental in furthering the erection of the church, which was consecrated by Bishop Onderdonk in 1836. Seth S. Rogers was then the rector. Death closed his labor Nov. 3, 1838. Previous to the building of the church, services were held in the academy at Guilford Center.

    Following is the succession of rectors from that time as complete as the records enable us to make it. R. F. Burnham, who accepted a call tendered him Dec. 10, 1842; Israel Foote, from July, 1845, to Easter Monday, 1854; John Bayley, from Oct. 1854, to April, 1857; William Allen Johnson, 1858-60; Joseph S. Saunders, 1860-63; T. Southard Compton, from May, 1863, to Feb., 1865; Joseph Hunter, from Nov., 1865, to Easter, 1868; C. M. Nickerson, from July, 1868, to Aug. 8, 1869; George Heaton, from May 1, 1870, to Nov. 1, 1872; H. B. Gardner, from Jan. 1, 1873, to July 1, 1875; W. De. L. Wilson, from July 1, 1875, to the present time, July 8, 1879.

    Erastus P. Smith was a lay reader here for thirty years, and officiated in the absence of pastors. He received orders at the age of about sixty years, having refrained from doing so earlier from his father's repugnance in the matter. His baptism --- Dec. 25, 1831,---is the first one recorded in the Parish register.

    The first confirmation recorded took place July 31, 1832, when 23 received the holy ordinance at the hands of Bishop Onderdonk.

    The church was remodeled during Dr. Foote's rectorship. Previously the pulpit was built up against the wall in the ecclesiastical style of architecture commonly known as "Bishop Hobart's three-decker." This was removed and a more modern one substituted and the seats, which were arranged in semi-circular form, were changed.

    The total number who have been confirmed is 288; baptized, 471; marriages, 85. The present number of communicants is 121; families, 70; and individuals, 240.

    The Methodist Episcopal Church of Guilford was organized Dec. 6, 1841, at a meeting held in the Methodist meeting-house in the village of Fayette, (Guilford) for the purpose of incorporating a religious society, at which Rev. Charles Harris presided. Albert Cornwell and Stephen B. Stead were chosen judges of election, and Stephen B. Stead, Ozias Bush, Albert Cornwell, Cyrus Comstock, Abijah Cornwell, Jr., Levi Yale, Abel Cornwell, Roswell R. Bush, and John Denison were elected trustees. It was incorporated as the Methodist Episcopal Society of Fayette.

    The church edifice was built in 1840 and enlarged and repaired in 1874.

    The church and the Guilford Center church have been on the same charge since their organization. The membership of the charge is 172 and 9 probationers.

    Services were held regularly previous to the organization, but we have no information as to the pastorates prior to the building of the church. Since then the following named pastors have served the charge: Charles Harris and Philip Bartlett, 1840 - '41; Revs. Davis, Stockley and Silsby, 1842-3; Andrew Peck and R. S. Rose, 1844-5; C. Starr and Addison Queal, 1846-7; C. Starr, M. M. Tuke and S. Moon, 1847-8; John Crawford and William G. Queal, 1849; White and Francis D. Higgins the latter of whom married here Luciette Hendrick, 1850-1; Charles Starr, 1852-3; Walter Jerome, 1854-5; William Southworth, 1856; L. G. Weaver, 1857-8; Ellis D. Thurston, 1859; Austin S. Southworth, 1860-2; William R. Cochran, Sept. 1, 1862, to April 22, 1863; William G. Queal, 1866; William Burnside, 1866-8; Lyman Sperry, 1869-71; Ira B. Hyde, 1872-3; D. R. Carrier, a part of a year; E. W. Caswell, 1874-5; T. P. Halsted, 1876; A. M. Colegrove, 1877-8; and E. L. Bennett, the present pastor, who commenced his labors in the spring of 1879.

    The Baptist Church of Guilford was organized as the Baptist Church of Fayette, June 3, 1843, as a branch of the church in Oxford, and was composed originally of Russell Dibble, Salina Dibble, Susannah Smith, Susan Merchant, Abigail Laraway, Loritta Cable, Eliza Saunders, Anthony Williams, Polly Williams, John Edson Dibble, Elizabeth Guy and Hammon Guy, who were then residing in Fayette and vicinity and were members of the church in Oxford. Six others had joined during the year four by letter and two by baptism, viz: Alonzo Hendrick, Clarinda Hendrick, Frances H. Morgan, Mary L. Smith, by letter, and Daniel Dibble and Henry Van Cott, by baptism.

    Rev. E. G. Perry was the first pastor. He closed his labors April 27, 1844. The latter date they resolved to form a Sabbath school, and a Mr. Gorham, from Madison University, was to visit them for that purpose and to preach for a few weeks.

    June 8, 1844, they resolved to organize as a separate church, and Russell Dibble, John Hull, Jr., Alonzo Hendrick and John M. Wilcox were appointed a committee to draft articles therefor. June 30, 1844, articles reported by the committee were adopted. July 21, 1844, the Church of Oxford was petitioned for permission to withdraw for that purpose. The names affixed to that petition, in addition to those already given, are: Gardner Wade, Harrison H. Van Cott, George Knapp, Roxana Brant, Elizabeth Hull, Salome Wade, Esther Hendrick and John Hull, Jr. Aug. 27, 1844, the covenant of the Oxford church was adopted, and they were recognized by a council which convened at the house of R. Dibble, and was composed of the following delegates: Elder O. Bennett, Sylvanus Moore, Benjamin Randall, Seth Curtis and William Willcox, from the church in McDonough; Deacon S. Yale, Uriah Yale, Elam Yale and Mark Yale, from the Second Guilford church; David P. Willoughby and Leontas Hendrick, from the church in Coventry; Lyman Root, Samuel Root, John Perry, David Hayes, John Gray and Randall Maine, from the church in Oxford. Randall Maine was chosen Moderator and David Hayes, Clerk of the council. Elder O. Bennett gave the right hand of fellowship. In that year they united with the Chenango association. Sept. 7, 1844, Russell Dibble and John M. Willcox were chosen deacons.

    Aug. 30, 1847, they were incorporated as The Baptist Society in Fayette, and Jesse Hendrick, John D. Laraway and John Hall were elected trustees.

    Sept. 8, 1844, an invitation was extended to George W. Holbrook, of Madison University, to preach a few Sabbaths with a view to settlement as pastor. This seems not to have resulted as was hoped, for Nov. 3, 1844, it was resolved to invite Elder Judd, of Gilbertsville, to labor as pastor one-half the time the ensuing year. Albert Guy succeeded to the pastorate in the spring of 1846, and closed his labors April 13, 1851.

    Aug. 30, 1847, the trustees were instructed to enter into arrangements with John Hull, Jr., for the purchase of the house and lot then used as a place of worship.

    M. J. Knowlton, of Madison University, supplied the pulpit eight weeks in 1851. Jan. 10, 1852, Rev. Aaron B. Jones was called to the pastorate. He closed his labors Jan. 1, 1853. The names of Revs. Everett, N. Ripley and Everts officiated in 1855, but whether either of them became pastor does not appear from the records. Rev. M. L. Bennett united with the church July 2, 1859. He seems to have been the last regular pastor the church has had. Only occasional meetings have since been held. The church is in a feeble condition, its membership not exceeding ten or twelve.

    SOCIETIES.---Guilford Lodge, No. 189, A. O. U. W., was organized Dec. 28, 1878. The charter and present officers are: Theodore C. Hutchinson, P. M. W.; George H. Baldwin, M. W.; Lewis S. Pearsall, G. F.; David Dorman, O.; Samuel A. Delavan, Recorder; Marshall D. Spencer, Financier; Martin V. B. Winsor, Receiver; Eugene B. Ryan, G.; Joseph E. Baker, I. W.; Gerret R. Wheeler, O. W.


    Mount Upton is eligibly situated on the west bank of the Unadilla, a little above the mouth of Butternut creek, and on the New Berlin branch of the Midland Railroad, about six miles above its junction with the main line. It contains three churches, (Baptist, Episcopal and Methodist Episcopal,) one district school, one hotel, (kept since April 1, 1879, by Charles M. Prentice and Ora Finch, the from Butternuts and the latter from Guilford,) four stores, one grist and saw-mill, one harness shop, (kept by G. S. Palmer,) two blacksmith shops, (kept by R. B. Sherman and Albert Babbitt,) one carriage and hearse manufactory, (G. F. Grave, proprietor,) one undertaking establishment, (kept by C. H. Graves,) one shoe shop, (kept by J. H. Gregory, Joseph Morse and D. Bowen, the latter one-half mile above the village,) one jeweler's shop, (kept by C. S. Graves,) one tailor shop, (kept by A. Hock,) and a population of 300.

    MERCHANTS.---The first merchants at Mt. Upton were George Fenno and John Z. Saxton, who opened a store as early as 1820, possibly a little earlier, and traded till the death of Fenno, April 29, 1829, when Saxton, who came here from Connecticut, removed to Fredonia, Chautauqua county, and from thence to Argyle, Wis., where he died a few years ago. Fenno was an Englishman and came here from New York. He was born Jan. 28, 1786. Oliver M. Mather opened a store directly after the death of Fenno, and continued about five years. He came here from Ostego county and continued to reside here till his death, a few years ago. He was succeeded by Oliver H. Everett, from Connecticut, who bought Mather's goods and continued in trade till his death, about 1837 or '8. Nathaniel Daniels bought Everett's stock and traded one to two years, when he formed a partnership with his son, Landon and Lucius H., under the name of N. Daniels & Sons. After some five years Nathaniel and Landon withdrew, and Lucius formed a co-partnership with Lucius H. Donaldson, under the name of Daniels & Donaldson, which was continued about three years, when Daniels sold to a man named Tobey, who traded about a year and returned to Duchess county, whence he came.

    Previous to this, about 1842, Willis Gregory and Landon Daniels formed a co-partnership which continued about two years, when they sold to Henry Billings, who came from the west part of the county and did business about ten years, during which time he was associated at different times with Willis Gregory, Ur Hayes, W. Arnold, and Charles P. Sykes. Billings sold to David Wescott, a former resident of the county, who traded about five years, when he sold to Tompkins Jewell, and removed to Norwich and engaged in trade there. He soon after removed to Utica, where he still resides. Jewell, after about two years, sold to Ransom and Jay E. Truesdell, brothers and farmers, from Rockdale. The Truesdell Brothers continued about a year, when Ransom sold his interest to Frederick W. Curtis, of Rockdale. Jay E. Truesdell soon after sold to H. W. Curtis, brother of Frederick. The business was continued by the Curtis Brothers about three years, when they dissolved, and F. W. took his share of the goods to Sidney Plains. H. W. Curtis continued here alone till 1870, when Horace F. Place became his partner, and the business was conducted under the name of Curtis & Place seven years. In 1877, Curtis sold to George A. Gregory and the firm became Place & Gregory, and remained such about sixteen months, when Gregory sold to Franklin Morse. The business, (general merchandise,) has since been conducted under the name of Place & Morse.

    About 1835, Seneca Dimmock, of Burlington, commenced trading and continued till about 1838. He sold to Amos Gregory, originally from Connecticut, but for several years a resident of the town. Gregory sold about 1840 to Henry W. Sill, who traded about eight years and sold to Willis Gregory. About this year also (1835) Winsor & Orcutt, (Geo. H. Winsor and Daniel Orcutt,) opened a store and traded about five years, when they sold a part of their goods and removed the remainder to Masonville. Winsor is now practicing law in Bainbridge.

    About 1847 or '8, William Gregory, a native of the place, commenced trading here. He sold to William Green, also a native of the town, who sold to William Carpenter, a native of the county. The business passed successively from the hands of Carpenter to those of his brother Chester, James Russell Brett, Charles E. Brett, brother of James R., Dr. Benjamin F. Smith, Lyman D. Ives and Alexis H. Wheeler, the latter of whom, a native of the town, still carries on the business of drugs, groceries, boots and shoes, which he commenced in March, 1872.

    The other merchants at present doing business here are Francis H. Peck, general merchant, who came in from Morris, where he had been engaged in farming for twenty years, and has traded here since the spring of 1867; and Rood & Lynch, (Perry Rood and John R. Lynch,) general merchants. This business was commenced in 1869 by John A. Day, who after about two and on-half years sold to Truesdell & Brown, (Harvey A. Truesdell and Albert R. Brown,) by whom the business was carried on till the fall of 1873, when Perry Rood bought Brown's interest, and the firm name became Truesdell & Rood. After one year Rood bought Truesdell's interest and one and one-half years later admitted John R. Lynch to partnership. The business has since been conducted under the above name.

    POSTMASTERS.---The first postmaster at Mt. Upton of whom we have any authentic information, was John Z. Saxton, who probably held the office during the period of his mercantile career here. He was succeeded by John F. Mather, Lucius H. Daniels, Lucius H. Donaldson, Russell Ford, from about 1842 to '49, Willis Gregory from 1849 to '53, Wm. Gregory, who held it till his death Aug. 25, 1854, Chauncey S. Graves, from 1854 to 1861, James R. Brett, Jay E. Truesdell and Jesse Hooker from 1861 to 1865, Merlin J. Ford, from 1865 to 1875, and Alexis H. Wheeler, the present incumbent, who was appointed January 13, 1875.

    PHYSICIANS.---The first physician to locate at Mt. Upton was John F. Mather, who came here between 1827 and 1830 and removed to Garrettsville previous to 1843. He was a skillful physician, but became very much addicted to inebriety. He died in Garrettsville. James S. Coggeshall was practicing here in 1843 and '44. David Matteson, M. D., practiced here from about 1838 till his death, Feb. 20, 1847. Joseph C. Brett, James Secor, John Yale and James Matteson, the latter a nephew of Dr. David Matteson, studied about the same time with that gentleman. Brett commenced practice about 1845 and continued till within a short time of his death, which occurred Feb. 2, 1857, with the exception of a few years during the latter part of the time spent in Gilbertsville. Secor and Yale each commenced practice about 1846, and the former continued till his death, in July, 1861. Brett and Yale practiced in company. Matteson probably never practiced here. Yale was a native of the town. His grandfather, Uri Yale, was one the first settlers at Yaleville, which derives its name form the Yale families who settled there. He practiced here thirteen years, till 1859, and removed to Corning, and thence after a year or two to Bainbridge, where he practiced some eight or ten years. He is now living in Wisconsin. James R. Brett, brother of Dr. Joseph C. Brett, studied with Dr. Yale in 1855-8 and practiced till the opening of the war, when he enlisted and contracted a disease which developed into consumption and terminated his life Feb. 14, 1863.

    Ebenezer McClintock came from Delaware county in the fall of 1861 and practiced about a year. He then enlisted in the 114th Regiment, was discharged by reason of disability, came home, and afterwards received an appointment as Assistant Surgeon in a reserve surgical corps. After the war he located at Morris, where he died of consumption. Benedict Arnold Weeks came from Rockdale (where he practiced about a year,) about 1863, and practiced some two years. He is now living near Hudson. Dr. McDougall came in from New Berlin in 1868 or '9, but practiced only a few months, when he removed to Mt. Vision, in Ostego county. His is now in Oneonta. Henry S. Edson came from Otego in the summer of 1877, and removed in the spring of 1878 to Sidney Plains.

    Dr. Jonathan Guernsey, who located two miles above the village, and died there June 27, 1853, and Dr. Colby Knapp, who was located at Guilford Center, were the earliest practitioners in this locality. They traversed a large circuit. Dr. Knapp peddled blue pills and abolition doctrines when it was dangerous to be known as an abolitionist.

    The Guernseys were a prominent family in the town. They came from Massachusetts about 1818, and settled on the farm now occupied by George A. Truesdell. He married Frances Brownell, who died Nov. 3, 1877, aged 78. His children were Caroline, who married a man named King and lived in North Norwich; Phebe, who married man named Root, of Madison county, and afterwards Rev. Mr. Murdock, a Presbyterian minister of Elmira; Euphemia J., the authoress, who married Orson Richmond; Addison, Hamilton and Augustus, physicians in Wisconsin; Frank and Henry, the latter of whom died in youth. All the rest are living, the boys in Wisconsin, Caroline in Madison, Phebe in Elmira, and Euphemia J. in Guilford.

    The present physicians at Mt. Upton are Benjamin F. Smith and James R. Walker.

    Dr. Benjamin F. Smith was born in Unadilla, N. Y., Dec. 10, 1833. He commenced the study of medicine at Mt. Upton in Oct., 1854, with Dr. John Yale, with whom he remained three years. During that time he attended two courses of lectures at the Albany Medical College, where he graduated Dec. 22, 1857. He commenced practice in Mt. Upton in Jan., 1858, in company with his preceptor, whose practice he bought after one year.

    Dr. James R. Walker was born in Butternuts, N. Y., March 3, 1858, and commenced the study of medicine at Mt. Upton, Nov. 27, 1875, with Dr. Benjamin F. Smith. Oct. 1, 1877, he entered the University of Michigan, at Ann Arbor, and April 1, 1878, the University Medical College of New York, where he was graduated Feb. 28, 1879. He commenced practice in Mt. Upton April 14, 1879.

    LAWYERS.---The first lawyer at Mt. Upton was Francis Upton Fenno, who was born in Butternuts, Ostego county, Aug. 30, 1819, and practiced here from about 1843 till his death, Aug. 17, 1861, with the exception of about two years spent in New York. The second was Landon Daniels, who studied with Fenno, and practiced from about 1846 till 1860, when he went to Michigan. George Washington Chamberlayne, a native of the town, practiced from about 1848 till within a short time of his death, in 1867, with the exception of a few years spent in California. He was the Democratic nominee for Member of Assembly in this district in 1863. Russell Ford came from Canaan, Columbia county, N. Y., in 1800. He held the office of Justice of the Peace, a great many years, and thus familiarized himself with the ethics of law. He was admitted to the Bar on motion of Daniel S. Dickenson, at the General Term in Binghamton, and practiced law from that time till his death, Aug. 11, 1863, though not as a dependency. Joseph Phelps came from New Berlin, where he read law with Henry Bennett, about 1871, and practiced about two years.

    Alvin Bennett, the only lawyer now practicing here, was born in Guilford, Oct. 31, 1846. He read law one year with Hon. D. P. Loomis at Unadilla, and three years with E. C. Belknap at the same place. He was admitted at the General Term at Albany, March 7, 1872, and commenced practice at Mt. Upton the following year.

    MANUFACTURES.---The grist and saw-mill at Mt. Upton is owned by John A. Day, who bought a half interest in the property in Oct. 1871, of Caleb S. Davis, and the remaining half interest in Feb., 1875, of Chauncey S. Graves. Mr. Day operates the saw-mill, which contains a log saw, slitting saw, shingle saw, matcher and planer, and wood saw, and leases the grist-mill, which contains three run of stones, to George Pratt. There is also a machine shop connected with the saw-mill. The mills are operated by water drawn from the Unadilla by a raceway about thirty rods in length. The dam is 4½ feet high.

    HOTELS.---The hotel in Mt. Upton was built in 1853 by William W. Greene, who kept it till within a year of his death, May 11, 1864. He had previously kept the old one on the same site, which was built about 1810 or 1812 by Amos Gregory, who kept it most of the time till 1835. From that time till 1850, about which time it came into the possession of William W. Greene, there were a good many changes in proprietorship. Prominent among those who kept it during that period were George A. Crocker, from Greene county, who succeeded Gregory, Jesse Green and William S. Moore, the latter of whom sold to William W. Green.

    CHURCHES.---The First Baptist Church of Guilford, at Mount Upton, was organized in 1797, in the locality of Rockdale, and meetings were held in that vicinity till 1875, July 12th of which year it was decided, at a special meeting of the Society, to remove the organization to Mount Upton. Promised data regarding this church has not been furnished, and as the clerk had a delicacy about allowing the records to be consulted by a stranger, our information concerning it is meager. From the Society records we learn that Aug. 14, 1820, John Hall deeded to the Society a half acre of land in Mount Upton for the purpose of building a chapel, which was erected that year. Nov. 7, 1833, a meeting was held in the school-house, and action was taken with reference to building a meeting-house, which seems to have been erected in 1835.

    Nov. 1, 1819, the church was incorporated as the First Baptist Church and Society of Guilford, in Mount Upton. The meeting held for this purpose was presided over by Stephen May and George Fenno. John Z. Saxton, John Aikin, Jr., William Heyer, Sr., Gurdon Chamberlin, William Griswold and Jesse Skinner were elected trustees.

    April 2, 1845, the Society was reorganized under the act of April 5, 1813. At that meeting, which was held in the meeting-house in Mount Upton, pursuant to notice given by Rev. Truman O. Judd, who was then officiating here, of which Sheldon Davis and B. M. Upham were presiding and returning officers, the name of The Baptist Church and Society of Mount Upton was adopted, and Sheldon Davis, Allen Pope, Morris D. Cady, Russell Ford, Charles Blood and Billings Brown, Jr., were elected trustees.

    Feb. 7, 1879, it was resolved to organize under the Centennial Trustee Law, passed May 15, 1876; and April 5, 1879, the following trustees were elected under that law: Jesse Van Dusen, John A. Day, H. C. Rockwell and James Metcalf, for the church, and Ur Hayes and William H. Smith, for the society.

    August 14, 1875, pursuant to the resolution to remove the organization to Mount Upton, John A. Day, C. W. Rockwell and James Metcalf were appointed a building committee to erect a house of worship in Mount Upton, and Sept. 1, 1875, ground was broken for the foundation of the church; and on the 13th of that month a number of carpenters commenced framing. The edifice was finished and dedicated Jan. 13, 1876, Rev. L. M. S. Haynes, of Norwich, preaching the dedicatory sermon. Rev. I. J. Bailey was then the pastor of the church. The entire cost of the church, furniture and organ was $6,016 of which about $3, 300 was then unprovided for. About two-thirds of the amount was provided for before the close of that service, and the remainder was pledged at the evening service. Among the contributions for the purpose of clearing this indebtedness were $550 from C. W. Rockwell, $500 from John A. Day, $425 from James Metcalf, $200 each from Erastus Rockwell and Howard C. Rockwell, $150 from Ur Hayes, $100 each from Jesse Van Dusen, George Cornell, David B. Fitch, Colonel Dunbar, Jarvis W. Place, O. W. Cuffman and Wm. H. Smith, $250 from J. Rowe, $125 each from Elisha Garey and H. Stevens, $55 from Mrs. C. W. Rockwell, and $50 each from Mrs. Sarah Cornell, Elder Evans, Mrs. Coltilda Colburn and Henry Bowen. The present pastor is Rev. J. R. Merriman.

    Grace Church in Mt. Upton was organized March 2, 1833, Rev. Isaac Garvin presided over the meeting held for that purpose, and he and Landon Daniels and George D. Latham were designated to certify the proceedings of the meeting. Alpeus Cody and Levi Bryant were elected wardens, and Richard Morris, Jonathan Guernsey, John F. Mather, Joel Chamberlin, Samuel B. Johnston, William Sterling, Lucius H. Daniels, Ezra W. Houck, Isaac Green and Lemuel Smith, vestrymen.


    Guilford Center is situated on Guilford Center, one and one-half miles below Guilford, and was once the seat of a flourishing academy. It has lost its prestige in the struggle for prominence. It is distinguished as the early residence of Daniel S. Dickinson, who commenced there the legal career which in after life made him so conspicuous.

    It contains two churches, (Presbyterian and Methodist Episcopal,) one district school, a small grocery, kept some four years by H. W. Payne, who also keeps a shoe shop; one harness shop, kept by D. Parker; a blacksmith shop, kept by John Young; a tailor shop, kept by Thomas P. Hicks; and a population of 61. There is a hotel building, but it has not been kept for twelve to fifteen years.

    MERCHANTS.---The first merchants at Guilford Center were Caleb Mann and Henry Smith, who sold goods in the tavern four or five years from about 1809; but the first of any considerable importance were Rufus Baldwin and Ephraim H. Denison, the former from Goshen, and the latter a resident of Norfolk, Conn. They opened a store previous to the war of 1812, and traded several years. Rufus continued after their dissolution till about 1836, in company with his brothers, Horace and William, the latter of whom continued till about 1846, when he was succeeded by George B. Dyer, who sold after one or two years to William Baldwin, who discontinued after some two years. Eleazer H. Fitch, from New York, commenced trade about 1820, and continued till his death, Dec. 6, 1852, doing an extensive and lucrative business. Fitch was associated about three years with Cornelius Oakley, also from New York, who owned a mile square in the central part of the town, of which Fitch afterwards bought the unsold portion. Thomas and James Newton were contemporary with the Baldwin Bros., about 1829 or '30, and traded some four of five years in the wing of the hotel. They were thorough business men. They came here young, single men and strangers. Both married here and moved west. W. W. Clark traded here four or five years from 1860; and George W. Baldwin, five or six years from about 1870. Clark is a native of the town, and is now carrying on a cooper-shop in Guilford, to which place he removed.

    POSTMASTERS.---The first postoffice in the town was kept at Humphrey's Corners, by Dr. Colby Knapp, from whom it was named Knappsville. It was removed thence to the Center, and the first postmaster at the latter place was Daniel S. Dickinson, who held the office till his removal to Binghamton, when he was succeeded by Asher C. Moses, who had previously studied law with Dickinson. Moses held it till about 1839. The office was removed about this time to Guilford and there was a short interval when there was no office here. It was re-established about 1841, and the name, which had previously been Guilford, was changed to Guilford Center, to distinguish it from the upper village, which assumed the name of Guilford when the post-office was established there, in exchange for that of Fayette, by which it had previously been known. The first post-master after the re-establishment was Charles D. Cobb, who was succeeded by Daniel Morgan, who held the office till 1849, when Thomas P. Hicks was appointed and held it till 1853, when he was succeeded by George F. Humphrey, who was succeeded in 1861 by Franklin S. Clark. Clark held it till Nov. 19, 1867; was again appointed, but held it only three months. George Baldwin next held it several years and was succeeded by George Wooster, who held it till July 24, 1875, when Erastus A. Whiting, the present incumbent, was appointed.

    PHYSICIANS.---The first physician who located at Guilford Center and the first in the town was Dr. Colby Knapp, who was born in Norfolk, Conn., April 25, 1768, and removed thence in 1800 to Guilford. He located at Humphrey's Corners, about four miles east of Guilford, where he look up a farm and practiced medicine in all this section of country. He subsequently removed to the Center, where he resided and practiced till within a few years of his death, when, having earned a wide-spread reputation, he removed, at an advanced age, to Binghamton, to live with his daughter Lydia, who married Daniel S. Dickinson, and there died March 5, 1853.

    "Dr. Knapp had no the advantages of a collegiate education, but being possessed of strong natural powers and studious habits he soon acquired an eminence in his profession that early obtained for him a diploma from Yale College.     *     *     *     His mental powers were not so quick and brilliant in their operations as in many of less eminence, but remarkably clear and judicious. With him an opinion upon any subject was the result of careful investigation, and when once formed seldom changed. His peculiarly calm and cool temperament, whatever might be the exciting circumstances in which he was thrown, eminently prepared him for his profession." 3

    Dr. Knapp had two children by his first wife, from whom he divorced before coming here, Cyrus, who died young, and Sophia, who married a man named Hewen, who removed south, where he now resides, his wife being insane. He married after coming here Lucinda Murray, who died Sept. 3, 1846, aged 63, and by whom he had ten children: Lydia, who married Daniel S. Dickenson, Eliza, who married ---- Dickerman and died in Guilford; Lucy, who married Horace Dresser and died in Bainbridge, where her husband was then teaching school; Lucinda, who married ---- Wescott, and is now living in Binghamton, her husband having died in Jackson, Miss.; Hannah, who married James Hathaway, a teacher in Chicago, where she is now living; Bessie, who married Hon. Giles Hotchkiss, of Binghamton, where both died; Frederick, who married a southern lady and is now living in New Orleans; Cyrus, who married west, and is living in Springfield, Ill.; Colby, who is living west; James, who married a Miss Scott, of Bainbridge, now dead, and is now living with his second wife in Jackson, Miss.

    Drs. Farrell and Lee, from Sherburne, located at Guilford Center at an early day, about 1834 or 1835. Lee remained but a short time. Farrell practiced several years in company with Dr. Knapp. William Beardsley came here in 1844, after Farrell left, and after practicing three or four years removed to Coventry. Walter L. Barber came in from Greene county about 1843. He removed to Deposit after two or three years' practice. Dr. Whitcomb, a native of the town, commenced practice here about 1836, and continued three or four years. He removed to Yazoo City, Miss.

    LAWYERS.---The first lawyer at Guilford Center was Daniel S. Dickinson, who practiced from his admission to the Bar in 1828 till his removal to Binghamton in Dec. 1831; and the only other one was Asher C. Moses, who was a student of Dickinson's, and after some ten or fifteen years' practice removed to Deposit, where he now resides.

    GUILFORD CENTER ACADEMY.---Nov. 20, 1827, a committee previously appointed for the purpose by the Center school district, reported it expedient to build by subscription a house of the following description:---

    "The lower room to be devoted exclusively to the use of a common school, the upper room to be used for a select school, and different public meetings of a moral, religious and literary nature, and for the accommodation of persons attending meeting on the Sabbath, but a select school at all times to have the preference; the lower room to be under the control of the trustees of said district, the upper room to be controlled by the trustees to be appointed by the subscribers, and any person or persons wishing to occupy said room shall first obtain leave of said trustees; said house to be 36 by 24 feet, 20 feet posts, chimney in rear and with one fire-place above and one below, 8 feet span or entry-way in front, two front doors, one for stairway for upper room and one for lower room; span-way to be supported by partition; both rooms suitably lighted and a Corinthian window in front; lower room to be done off with desks for writers, and about five movable settees, and in all respects finished suitable and convenient for a common school; the upper room to be furnished with seats on the sides attached to the wall, with staging or circular tables in one end and desk in front, suitable for a select school; the floors to be double, of good materials, and the walls to be lathed and plastered, the top to be finished with a cupola and furnished with a cast steel bell of about 25 pounds; the outside to be painted white and the inside dark slate or blue; and the window furnished with green Venetian blinds."

    Then follows the names of subscribers, 159 in number, with the amounts subscribed by each. The amounts aggregate $505.67, and vary from $2.50 to $20, the latter amount being contributed by only four individuals.

    At a meeting held at the Center school-house, Dec. 18, 1827, at which Calvin Mills was chosen chairman, and Daniel S. Dickinson, clerk, it was resolved to form a joint society from the subscribers under the name of Guilford Center Academy, and a set of resolutions was adopted for the government of the same. Daniel T. Dickinson was elected president, and Daniel S. Dickinson secretary, both to serve during the pleasure of the society. Rufus Baldwin, Daniel S. Dickinson and George Humphrey, were elected a building committee; and a committee was appointed to secure the title to the site on which it was proposed to build of the Messrs. Baldwin.

    Nov. 14, 1828, John Latham, Dauphin Murray, Rufus Baldwin, John T. Whiting, Daniel S. Dickinson, Calvin Mills and Phineas Atwater were elected trustees.

    The academy was built in 1828, and Nov. 26th of that year, the trustees contracted with Horace Dresser to teach one year, commencing Dec. 1, 1828, for $75 and board. Dresser taught as late as 1830. The records do not enable us to follow the history of this institution beyond this point. The academy was discontinued shortly before 1844. The building is now used as a district school-house. It was repaired three years ago and the two stories thrown into one.

    CHURCHES.---The First Congregational Church of Guilford Center.---The first sermon by a clergyman of this denomination in Guilford was preached by Rev. Israel Brainard in 1801, in the new school-house at Ives' settlement, and about a year passed before there was another. Mr. Brainard was pastor of the Church in Vernon, Oneida county, many years, and died in Syracuse in 1854. Rev. Seth Williston then and till 1810 pastor of the church at Lisle, which was organized by him in 1797, preached here a few times previous to the organization. Occasionally a sermon was preached by ministers sent out by the Connecticut and Massachusetts Missionary Societies. Rev. James Jewell preached in different neighborhoods and labored to prepare the way for the organization of the Church.

    "But little religious influence was exerted previous to the arrival of Deacon Mills in 1807. The Sabbath was quite generally desecrated. On the first Sabbath after his arrival an application was made for his team to be used for some purpose either of pleasure or business. With decision he refused, thus at once establishing a reputation as a Sabbath-keeping man, and lifting up the standard of morality and truth."

    This Society was organized Sept. 26, 1807, at a meeting held at the school-house near Thomas Abby's inn, at which Daniel Johnson and Daniel Savage were chosen inspectors and returning officers. Those there assembled "agreed to form themselves into a religious society by the name of Presbyterian," and chose Abijah Cornwell, Solomon Pier and John Nash trustees. The record of these proceedings was acknowledged before Casper M. Rouse, one of the Judges of Chenango Court, of Common Pleas, Sept. 28, 1808. A second record of this meeting, also acknowledged before Judge Rouse, Dec. 2, 1808, gives the additional information that the name adopted was the Second Associated Presbyterian Society in Oxford, and that it comprehended the eastern part of the town. Sept. 20, 1814, at a meeting held at the school-house near the house of Jehial Parsons, it was voted, in view of the fact that the town had been set off from Oxford, to change the name to the First Congregational Society in the town of Eastern.

    The Church was organized July 14, 1812, in a barn which stood a little west of Mr. Van Cott's and is still standing though on the opposite side of the street from where it then stood, and with a new covering. Revs. David Harrower and Joel T. Benedict officiated at this ceremony. The constituent members were Samuel Mills and Lucy his wife, Jesse Whiting and Hannah his wife, Daniel Savage and Lydia his wife, Daniel Johnson and Mary his wife, Rachel Skinner wife of Benjamin Skinner, and Lucinda, wife of Julius Whiting.

    July 31, 1812, Samuel Mills was elected deacon, and appointed delegate to the Union Association, with which they then resolved to unite.

    During the first few years there was only occasional preaching by Revs. Joel T. Benedict, David Harrower, ______ Garvin, of Butternuts, _______ Hyde, of Oxford, _______ Knight, of Sherburne, and James Jewell, the latter of whom the Society voted in February, 1814, to employ half the time.

    In August, 1814, the church changed its name to the First Congregational Church; and in September following the Society made the same change.

    Public worship was steadily maintained on the Sabbath during those early years. Deacon Mills was the leader when no minister was present, and sermons were read. This has been eminently characteristic of the church during all its history, when the living preacher was not heard, the people assembled to worship God and listen to the reading of sermons. Deacon Mills was chiefly instrumental in establishing and conducting religious meetings of this kind for years previous to the organization of the church. In August, 1816, Jesse Whiting was chosen the second deacon. Julius Whiting, son of Jesse, was the first chorister, and led the singing for several years.

    In October, 1815, the Society met to consider the building of a house of worship. The frame was raised in June, 1816. It was inclosed during that summer and autumn, and occupied in January, 1817. The cost, besides a large amount of gratuitous labor, was about $1,700. Hitherto the school-house was used as a place of worship, and frequently a barn was occupied, as affording increased accommodations. It was about three years before the church was completed, though the congregation assembled in it summer and winter before it was plastered or painted, or furnished with cushioned seats or even stoves. A carpenter's bench was the pulpit. Boards and planks were spread about for seats. January 7, 1822, it was "resolved to admit a stove into the meeting-house, provided sufficient means could be raised to procure one." While the building of the house was in progress a revival was also in progress, although the church was without a pastor, and the first time the new house was occupied, 27 were added on profession of faith. The revival continued many months, and during the year, 71 were added to membership. Rev. Henry Chapman, who was pastor of the church at Hartwick from 1811 to his death in 1823, and Rev. Mr. Thorp, then at Sidney, rendered valuable aid during this revival. In 1820 the church was completed at an additional cost of $1,087.

    The first pastor was Rev. Asa Donaldson, who began his labors in the summer of 1818, was installed by the Union Association May 25, 1819, and continued there till the fall of 1831, when he was dismissed at his own request. The whole number received to the church during his pastorate was 138. He was succeeded immediately by Rev. Leverett Hull, who remained two years, and admitted 129 persons to membership. He removed to Angelica. John W. Fowler, who was afterwards a lawyer and Principal of the Albany Law School, next occupied the pulpit about two years. Rev. Mr. Whitney was a supply for a few months.

    In July, 1836, Rev. Edwin Bronson was installed the second pastor by the Presbytery of Chenango. He was dismissed at the expiration of a year. In September, 1837, Rev. Solon G. Putnam was employed, and in April, 1838, was ordained and installed the third pastor. He was a faithful and devoted man and commenced his ministry with a good prospect of usefulness and success, but owing to ill health he was obliged to ask a dismission in the summer of 1839. He died in Ohio a few months later.

    Rev. Justus L. Janes, the fourth pastor, began his labors in the fall of 1839, was ordained and installed in May, 1841, and closed them in the summer of 1855. During his pastorate, in May, 1842, a colony of eighteen members went out from this church and organized the church at Van Buren Corners. The church twice underwent repairs. 192 were added to the membership; 163 were dismissed; and 52 died. In 1854, a malignant and fatal erysipelas fever prevailed in the town. Fourteen adult persons within a mile and a half of the Center became victims of that disease. Mr. Janes removed to Chester, Ohio, and became pastor of the Presbyterian church there.

    In 1855 the church was dismantled, leaving only the frame, and rebuilt and lengthened ten feet, at an expense of something more than $3,000.

    In April, 1856, Andrew Huntington, who had been preaching at Bainbridge, was employed. He served four years and added 24 to the membership. Rev. S. N. Robinson began his labors in 1860, and continued them three years. He received 45 by letter and profession, as the fruit of a revival in 1861. During his pastorate, in 1862, the semi-centennial of the church's history was appropriately celebrated. In June, 1863, a call was extended to Rev. S. N. Keeler, whose ordination took place on the 8th of the following month. During his three years' pastorate, 4 were added, 19 dismissed and 8 removed by death.

    In the summer of 1866, Rev. J.L. Jones entered upon a seven years' pastorate, during which 40 were added to the membership. He was greatly beloved by his congregation and highly esteemed by the community. He was succeeded in the fall of 1873 by Rev. Samuel Murdock, who served the church about two years. During his ministrations 13 were added, 26 stricken from the roll, 8 removed by death, and 12 dismissed to other churches.

    Rev. Philander Griffin, the present pastor, commenced his labors in May, 1876.

    During the sixty-seven years of the church's existence the whole number received to its membership was 839; there have been dismissed and recommended to other churches, 383; 52 have otherwise separated from it; and 170 have died; leaving a present (July 10, 1879,) membership of 234.

    The government of the church from the beginning has been representative. As early as 1816 a standing committee was chosen to transact the business of the church. In 1824, the church resolved to govern themselves by a committee of six to whom was delegated the duties (with two exceptions,) which the Presbyterian form of government enjoins upon the elders. In 1832 another committee was chosen with added powers, and in 1842 this was superseded by one with more limited powers, final action on all matters pertaining to government and discipline being taken by the whole body of male members. This committee is continued to the present time.

    In 1824, the church united with the Otsego Presbytery, a dismission having been obtained from the Union Association. In 1827, the General Assembly formed the Presbytery of Chenango, and this church was received into its connection the following year. In 1870, the church again united with the Otsego Presbytery and still remains in that connection, yet continues to retain its Congregational name.

    The work of the Sabbath School has been vigorously prosecuted in this church since 1819. The attendance at Sabbath School is 110. The superintendent is Franklin Clark.

    The Second Society of the Methodist Episcopal Church of Guilford, at Guilford Center, was organized Sept. 17, 1839, at a meeting of the members and friends of the Methodist Episcopal Church in Guilford, held at the academy in Guilford Center, and Azor Burlisson, Almon Trask, John Evans, Jesse Hendrick and Albert Cornwell were elected trustees.

    The meetings of which this society is the outgrowth, and indeed the entire Guilford charge, date back to 1801, when David Dunham was preaching on this circuit. The earliest meetings of which we have any information were held at the house of Samuel Steadman, on the old turnpike, about two miles from East Guilford. Samuel Steadman was for some time class-leader. Moses Clark and his wife and two or three other women appear to have composed the membership. The class, however, remained small in numbers for a long time. In 1810 and '11, conected with the work of Ebenezer White and Charles Giles, several women were converted and united with it, among whom were Sarah, Ruth and Alma Harris, distinguished Methodists in after years. From the fact of its being composed mostly of females, it was called "The Woman's Class." Alma Harris, widow of Sheldon Marsh, now living in Guilford village at an advanced age, is the only surviving member of that class. Their old class-leader having removed, Israel Chamberlayne, then living in Mt. Upton, some six miles distant, was appointed leader. But he was soon removed to a larger field of labor. He was licensed to preach by the Quarterly Conference March 13, 1813, and was afterwards extensively known as Dr. Chamberlayne of the Genessee Conference. He died a few years ago.

    Not long after this the preaching was removed to David Clark's, on the premises now owned by the widow of Charles Foot. In the summer the services were held in the barn of Mr. Clark, who was for several years the leader of the class. About 1803 or '4 an effort was made to introduce preaching into the Ives' settlement. A clergyman, supposed to have been E. White, preached one evening in a school-house near the burying ground, when two of the trustees, named Johnson and Ives, who were Presbyterians, forbid his renewing the appointment. Methodism then had to brave the contemptuous sneers of its opposers and ofttimes the apologies of its advocates. But notwithstanding the inveterate prejudice against it, it worked its way there under the faithful, stirring appeals of Revs. White, Giles and Abner Chase. Soon its influence was felt among the Iveses, Bushes and Trasks, and in process of time they worshiped for years in the school-house from which they had been excluded. There and in adjacent school-houses meetings were held till their removal to Guilford Center. The church was built there in 1839. The church is on the Guilford charge and the pastors have been the same as those named in connection with the Guilford church.


    Rockdale is situated on the west bank of the Unadilla and on the line of the New Berlin branch of the Midland Railroad, (which was opened for business in 1871,) about four miles below Mt. Upton.

    It contains one church, (Union,) one district school, one hotel, kept by Richard Blore, a saw and grist-mill, one store, a creamery, a carriage shop and blacksmith shop, kept by Hubert M. Gates and Joseph Flint, two shoe shops, kept by Evans H. Beckwith and William E. Elwell, and a population of 80.

    MERCHANTS.---The first merchant in Rockdale was Gaius Boughton, who came from the New England States and opened a small store about 1814 or '15, and traded some two or three years. The building in which he traded has been remodeled, and is now occupied as a dwelling by Hubert M. Gates. The next was William Clark, who came from Wilmington, Vt., in 1804, settled on the farm now occupied by Alson W. Mills, about two miles south-west of Rockdale, and commenced trading in 1827, first in a room in his dwelling-house, (which has been taken down,) which he occupied till his store was built the same year. The store stood just south of the hotel. It was afterwards removed to the site of the present store, and was burned in 1872. He continued trade some five years, carrying on a milling business at the same time.

    Amos Matteson was the next merchant. He came from New Berlin about 1839, and traded till his death in the spring of 1842. He was succeeded that year by Ransom Clark, who traded till 1860, when he sold to John A. Clark, from Wellsburgh, N. Y., who traded one or two years and sold to a man from Franklin, who removed the goods to that place. Edward P. Arms opened a store about 1863 or '64, and sold in 1866 to Ransom Clark and James F. Graves, who did business till 1872, when they burned out and did not resume.

    Charles V. Morris and Truman Prentice, from Butternuts, rebuilt on the same site and commenced trading in January, 1873. They continued about two and one-half years, and sold to Henry A. Skinner and Daniel S. Calkins, who traded one year, when Skinner bought out Calkins and sold after a year to Squire W. Richards. Richards traded about eighteen months and sold to William J. Sliter, of Sidney Plaines, who removed the goods to that place. George W. Gregory, the present merchant, bought the building in the spring of 1879.

    POSTMASTERS.---The first postmaster was Isaac Cox, who was appointed about 1829, and held the office till 1832, when Ransom Clark received the appointment. Mr. Clark was succeeded in 1853 by John Wilson, who held it one year, when John A. Clark was appointed and held it about two years. Edward P. Arms was next appointed, and held the office till 1866, when James F. Graves received the appointment. Ransom Clark, the present incumbent, succeeded Graves in 1870.

    PHYSICIANS.---The first physician in Rockdale was James Secor, a native of the town, who came from Mt. Upton about 1847 and returned there after eight or nine years' practice. Altron B. Maynard came from Connecticut about 1849 and practiced about two years, when he removed to Cortland county. A. B. Weeks came in from Montgomery county in 1861, and after about two years' practice removed to the locality of Fort Plain. A. B. Stanton practiced her about six months in 1871. He removed to Butternuts, where he now resides. There has been no physician here since he left.

    MANUFACTURES.---The saw and grist-mill at Rockdale were built originally about 1809, by Samuel Cotton and Joseph T. Gilbert, of Butternuts. They came in possession of William Clark in 1826 and were rebuilt by him in 1829. Mr. Clark operated them till 1837, when they passed into the hands of his son Ransom, who sold the grist-mill within a year to Daniel Cornell, and the saw-mill in 1842, to Hial D. Hovey. The saw-mill afterwards passed successively into the hands of Eber Rogers, Elihu Norton, Zachariah Curtis, Stanton J. and Henry A. Skinner, E. W. Griggs and Dubois M. Brown, the latter of whom is the present proprietor and acquired possession in 1876. The grist-mill passed successively into the hands of Zachariah Curtis and those who succeeded him as proprietors of the saw-mill.

    The Rockdale Creamery was built in the spring of 1865, by a company composed of Ransom Clark, George A. Truesdell, Edward Peck and Zachariah Curtis, with a capital of $2,500. After about a year Clark bought Truesdell's interest and J. D. Curtis bought Peck's. It was operated by the remaining partners five years, when it was leased to A. White & Co. Up to the time that White & Co. leased it it had been run a cheese factory. They converted it into a creamery. J. H. Powers, the present manager, leased it in the spring of 1879. Zachariah Curtis, and his son J. D., afterwards acquired possession of the factory, and sold it in 1873 to David W. Lewis, the present owner. In 1879 the milk of 415 cows was received.

    THE ROCKDALE RELIGIOUS SOCIETY was organized Sept. 19, 1859, at a meeting of the inhabitants of Rockdale and its vicinity, held in the school-house in that village. Geo. A. Truesdell was called to the chair and Ransom Clark chosen secretary. At that meeting it was resolved to incorporate under the above name, and to build a house of worship, and James H. Brown, Allen D. Wild, Zachariah Curtis, Geo. A. Truesdell, Leonard S. Manwaring, Sam'l B. Smith, Richard Blore, Ransom Clark and Elijah Hyer were elected trustees. Geo. A. Truesdell donated the land, about a quarter of an acre, on which the church stands. At a meeting of the trustees held Feb. 18, 1860, Geo. A. Truesdell was chosen president, and Ransom Clark, secretary and treasurer. Richard Blore, James H. Brown and Geo. A. Truesdell were appointed a committee to superintend the building of the house; and Enos Brainard, Josiah Griggs and Zachariah Curtis, to superintend the stone work. $1,203 were subscribed by 68 individuals toward the building of the church, which was erected in 1860, at a cost of about $1,200. Ransom Clark has been secretary of the Society since its organization. The church is open to all religious denominations; but Sept. 29, 1866, it was "voted that no shows or political meetings be admitted into [it."]

    The Methodists in this locality have a society, which was re-organized Oct. 29, 1859, and hold meetings regularly. This is part of the Sidney Plains charge. The present pastor is Rev. C. G. Wood, who commenced his labors with them in the spring of 1879. They number forty to fifty.

    The Universalists had an organization of few years after the building of the church, about 1868, and held regular meetings about two years; but owing to the paucity of its members the organization has run down and no denominational meetings are now held by them. They number about a dozen in the village and its vicinity.


    East Guilford is situated in the south-east corner of the town, at the junction of the New Berlin Branch of the Midland Railroad with the main line of that road, and near the mouth of Guilford Creek, the valley of which, just below the village, spreads out into a beautiful basin of flat lands and affords a very pleasant landscape. The chief industry of the place, aside from its agricultural interests, centers in the quarries of flagging stone located there, which are four in number, though only three are worked, all of which have recently been opened. The fourth, which is abandoned, was opened sixteen to twenty years ago.

    It contains one church, (Presbyterian,) a district school, a hotel, (not kept now,) one store, a saw and grist mill, located on Guilford Creek, which has a fall of about eight feet, and owned by A. J. & A. Preston, a shingle factory, owned by Rufus Newton, who is proprietor of a planing-mill, turning lathe and cider-mill, a shoe shop, kept by Edgar Gardner, a cooper shop, kept by Harvey Newton, two blacksmith shops, kept by Jack Cable and E. Orlando Olds, a carriage repair shop, kept by D. Olds, and a population of about 75. There are three firms engaged in quarrying flagging and curbing stone, employing in the aggregate about sixteen men, viz: Thurston Tarbell, who commenced in the summer of 1878; Gallagher, Mullen & Co., who commenced in the fall of spring of 1879. The quarries of Hickok and Tarbell are on the farm of Joseph A. Beale, and that of Gallagher, Mullen & Co., on the farm of Martin Talcott.

    Joseph F. Beale is the merchant at East Guilford. He commenced business October, 1875, at which time he bought out Jerome Preston. He had previously resided in the village, to which he came from South New Berlin, about thirteen years ago. Mr. Beale is the postmaster at East Guilford, to which office he was appointed July 18, 1873.


    Rockwell's Mills is the name of a post-office and station on the New Berlin Branch of the Midland Railroad, about a mile about Mt. Upton, both of which derive their name from the mills of Chester W. Rockwell located there. The history of these mills has been given previous to the time when they came into possession of Mr. Erastus Rockwell, in 1849. Mr. Rockwell found the property in a neglected condition. He repaired the old machinery, and added new. He also enlarged the building, and made a success of a business which had hitherto been unprofitable. In 1862 he sold to his brother, Chester W. Rockwell, who continued the business successfully till 1870, when the building was burned. In that year he became associated with David B. Fitch and Erastus Rockwell, under the name of Rockwell, Fitch & Co., and the mills were rebuilt, a portion of the old walls being used in the present structure. Messrs. Fitch and Erastus Rockwell withdrew at the expiration of about two years, and Howard C., son of Chester W. Rockwell, was admitted to partnership. The business has since been conducted under the name of C. W. Rockwell & Co. The woolen-mill is partly of stone and partly of wood. The stone part is 32 by 50 feet, two stories high, and the wooden part 34 by 84 feet, three stories high. It contains three sets of woolen machinery and gives employment to 25 persons. About 40,000 pounds of wool are annually consumed in the manufacture of 30,000 yards of cloth. During the war this was operated as a custom mill, and then and a few yards subsequently the magnitude of the business was fully double what is at present. The firm had on their books the names of over 1,200 customers and the patronage of about forty towns in the counties of Chenango, Otsego, and Delaware. The saw-mill connected with this property is a separate building, 80 by 18 feet, and contains one circular log saw and two shingle and slab saws. The mills are operated by water from the Unadilla, with a fall of 4 ½ feet, and, so flat is the river, the overflow extends for two miles above the dam. The saw-mill was originally built about the same time as the cotton-mill. It was rebuilt in 1855 by Erastus Rockwell, and in 1875 by the present proprietors. The business employs a capital of about $50,000. The Messrs. Rockwell also keep a grocery, which was started by them in 1870. This business, though occupying a somewhat retired location, is one of Chenango county's chief manufacturing industries.

    The postoffice here was established in February, 1874, and Howard C. Rockwell, who was then appointed postmaster, has since held the office.

    Near this locality, between here and Latham's Corners, is a Methodist church, whose history dates back to the inception of Methodism in this part of the country. This was the early center of Methodist influence in Chenango and Otsego counties, and we are advised that the parsonage connected with it was acquired about 1792, (we think this is a few years too early,) and was the first piece of property owned by the Methodists in Chenango or Otsego counties. The earliest meetings were held about or shortly previous to the beginning of the century, by those pioneers of Methodism in this locality, Revs. Ebenezer White and Charles Giles; and as early as June, 1803, there was an organization of Methodists here known as the Eastwood Society, from two brothers, John and Daniel Eastwood, who settled just across the Unadilla, in Otsego county, the former of whom was at times a class-leader and at others a steward, and the latter an early exhorter and for a long time an efficient local preacher. They were the nucleus of Methodism in this locality, and extended their influence over the north-east portion of Guilford, thus laying the foundation for the present Mount Upton charge. Both died in 1837, the former Dec. 27th, aged 76, and the latter, March 5th, aged 85. There was also preaching and a small society in the Boice neighborhood, two miles west of Mount Upton, as early as 1804; and a preaching place in 1815 at Nathaniel Hyer's, a mile below Mount Upton, but it was not continued long.

    June 7, 1815, The Union Society of Eastern was organized and elected for its first trustees Matthew Calkins and Daniel Burlingame of New Berlin; Paris Winsor, Simon Trask and Nathaniel Hyer of Eastern ; and George King of Norwich. The following year---May 15th---the First Methodist Episcopal Society in town of Eastern was organized at a meeting held at the house of David Clark in that town. Joel Root, Abial Bush, Abner Wood, Azor Burlisson, David Clark and Sheldon Marsh were elected trustees.

    May 10, 1819, the First Union Society of Guilford was organized, with John Eastwood, Elisha P. Beckwith, Amasa Colburn, William Gunn, Paris Winsor and Thomas Richmond as trustees.

    Under the auspices of this society, in 1819, the meeting-house in this locality was built for a Union church, by which name it is still known; but as the Methodists are the only denomination who have thrived upon this soil, they have gained a possessory claim to it, and it is generally known as a Methodist church. To this the meetings, which had been previously held in school-houses, private dwellings and barns, were transferred, though it remained for a number of years in an unfinished state. It was the frame of a church inclosed, temporarily seated, with a work-bench for a pulpit. There Nov. 13, 1819, the first quarterly meeting held in a church in Chenango county convened.

    In 1876, the church was rebuilt, at a cost of some $5,000, the old frame and the siding which had more recently been put on being retained.

    The present membership is about 100. The present pastor is Rev. Thomas P. Halsted, who commenced his labors in the spring of 1879. This church is on the Mt. Upton charge and has been, since the organization of the church at that place.


    Latham's Corners is a mere hamlet, situated on the Unadilla, two miles above Mt. Upton, containing a blacksmith shop, kept by Deloss W. Tyler, a carriage shop, kept by Adelbert Howe, and a cheese factory, which was built in the spring of 1878, by George Sage, who now operates it. In 1879 it received the milk of 430 cows.


    Yaleville, situated in the south-west part of the town, derives its name from the Yales who settled in that locality, and contains a church, (Baptist,) a creamery, operated by E. S. Bradley, and a blacksmith shop.

    The Second Baptist Church and Society of Guilford, which was organized at the school-house in district No. 1, Feb. 25, 1833, at which time Stephen Yale, Zebedee Yale and James Burch were elected trustees, disbanded April 29, 1875, for the purpose of uniting with the Baptist Church of Bainbridge.


    Van Buren's Corners, situated on the line of Norwich, contains three churches, (Methodist Episcopal, Presbyterian and Baptist,) but neither store, hotel, shop nor post-office. A post-office was established here during the presidency of Martin Van Buren, in whose honor the corners were named, the condition being that they carry the mail, which was received from Guilford; but becoming tired of the service the office was discontinued.

    The Second Society of the Methodist Episcopal Church of Norwich and Guilford met a the Webb school-house in the town of Norwich, April 23, 1844, and Peleg Arnold and Philo Hoag, members, were chosen to preside. Peleg Arnold, Oliver Jennason, Philo Hoag, Daniel Arnold and Joseph Wood were elected trustees.

    The First Congregational Society of Guilford and Norwich was organized at the school-house at "Little Four Corners," April 29, 1843. Abner Gilbert was chosen chairman and Charles Latham secretary of the meeting at which the organization was effected. Dennis Aldrich, Ezra Gibbs and Bennett Baker were elected trustees.

    The Summit Creamery, situated one and one-fourth miles north-west of Guilford, is owned by Edward Bradley and H. L. Smith. It was built in the north part of the town several years ago by a stock company, and removed to its present location five or six years ago by Hugh Scott. It received the milk from about 320 cows in 1879.

    WAR OF THE REBELLION.---The residents of Guilford took early action with reference to filing its quotas under the various calls. At a special meeting held Aug. 25, 1862, it was resolved that the Board of Town Auditors be requested to allow $100 to each volunteer, not to exceed thirty in number, who is a resident of this town and shall be accepted into the United States service.

    At a special meeting held Dec. 29, 1863, it was resolved to pay a town bounty of $310 to each volunteer and veteran, not to exceed 36, credited on the quota of the town under the call of Oct. 17, 1863; that the Supervisor and Clerk be authorized to raise money therefor on the bonds of the town, payable in three equal annual installments; that Dr. John Clark, Lucius Shelton, and Ransom Clark be a committee to pay said bounty; and to petition the Legislature through D. D. Bullock, member of Assembly from this district, to legalize this action.

    At the annual meeting held Feb. 16, 1864, it was resolved to pay $1,000 to each volunteer necessary to be applied on the quota of the town under the recent call of the President in addition to the United States, State and county bounties. The Supervisor was authorized to issue bonds payable one-half in one year and the remainder in two years.

    At a special meeting held April 11, 1864, it was resolved to pay $400 each to as many men as were required to complete the quota of the town, both to those who had already enlisted and to those who should thereafter do so, and to the person procuring them, $50 for each non-resident volunteer. One-half the amount required to meet the provisions of this resolution was to be paid Feb. 1, 1868, and the other half Feb. 1, 1869. The Supervisor and Clerk were directed to issue the bonds of the town to raise the amount needed.

    At a special meeting held June 30, 1864, it was resolved that in case the President of the United States should make a call for more men to carry on the work of crushing out the rebellion, and not otherwise, the town of Guilford, will pay, not exceeding $425 for the procuring of each and every man necessary to fill the quota under the anticipated call; the said $425 to include and cover all expenditures and disbursements as well as the payment of all bounties connected with the procurement of said men, except the payment of town officers; and the bonds of the town were directed to be issued for the purpose of carrying out the provisions of the resolution. At a special meeting held July 16, 1864, this resolution was amended so as to provide for the payment to each volunteer credited on the quota of the town, for one year, $300, for two years, $400, and for three years, not to exceed $500, this to include all expenses for procuring said volunteers. The bonds of the town, payable Feb. 1, 1865, were authorized to be issued, and William Cooley was constituted a committee to raise men and money forthwith.

    At a special meeting held Aug. 25, 1864, it was resolved that $1,000 be paid each person liable to the draft who should furnish an acceptable substitute credited on the quota of the town, for three years, $800 for two years, and $600 for one year. The same provision was made for volunteers thereafter enlisting under the action of this meeting and credited on the quota of the town under the call of July 18, 1864. The Board of Town Auditors were directed to issue the bonds of the town, and Lucius Shelton, G. W. Chamberlin, Ransom Clark, Erastus P. Smith, E. M. Whiting and John Evens were appointed a committee to carry out the provisions of the resolution.

    At a special meeting held Sept. 10, 1864, H. H. VanCott and George Bradbury were appointed a committee to fill the quota of the town and to pay not to exceed $1,000 for men, for one, two or three years. Fifty-six votes were cast for and forty against this resolution.

    Jan. 3, 1865, it was resolved to pay to each volunteer credited to the town not to exceed $600 for one year's, $800 for two years', or $1000 for three years' men. William Cooley was empowered to procure the men at the least possible expense.

    There is no statistical record of the result of this legislation, at least the record that did not exist could not be found.

1 - Discourse by Rev. S. N. Robinson, A. M., on the occasion of the fiftieth anniversary of the First Congregational Church of Guilford, of which he was pastor, to which we are indebted for other facts.
2 - This name is now spelled by certain members of the family, Chamberlain.
3 - Funeral Sermon of Dr. Colby Knapp, delivered at Guilford, April 3, 1853, by Rev. J. L. Jaynes, pastor of First Congregational Church of Guilford.
Transcribed by Maggie Jacobs - October, 2005 - May, 2006
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