The people were just recovering from the depressions and losses incident to the great financial panic of 1857. The future looked bright and promising, and the industrious and patriotic sons and daughters of the free States were buoyant with hope --- looking forward to the perfection of new plans for the securing of comfort and competence in their declining years of life; they little heeded the mutterings and threatenings of treason's children in the slave States of the South. True sons and descendants of the heroes of the "times that tried men's souls" --- the struggle for American Independence --- they never dreamed that there was even one so base as to dare attempt the destruction of the Union of their fathers --- a government baptised with the best blood the world ever knew. While immediately surrounded with peace and tranquillity, they paid but little attention to the rumored plots and plans of those who lived and grew rich from the sweat and toil, blood and flesh of others; aye, even trafficing in their own offspring. Nevertheless, the war came, with all its attendent horrors.
April 12, 1861, Fort Sumter, in Charleston bay, South Carolina, Major Anderson, USA commandant, was fired upon by rebel arms. Although base treason, this first act in the bloody reality that followed, was looked upon as the mere bravado of a few hot heads, the act of a few fire-eaters whose sectional bias and freedom-hatred was crazed by excessive indulgence in intoxicating potions. When, a day later, the news was borne northward, on the wings of the telegraph, that Anderson had been forced to surrender to what had at first been regarded as a drunken mob, the strong patriotic souls of the people of the north were startled from their dreams of the future, from undertakings half completed, and made to realize, that, behind that mob, there was a dark, deep, well organized purpose to destroy the government, rend the Union in twain, and out of its ruins erect a slave oligarchy, wherein no one would dare question their right to hold in bondage, the sons and daughters of "sunny Africa." But "they reckoned without their host." Their dreams of this Utopia, their plans for the establishment of an independent confederacy, were doomed from their inception to sad and bitter disappointment.
Immediately upon the surrender of Fort Sumter, Abraham Lincoln, the President, who, but a few short weeks before, had taken the oath of office as the nation's chief executive, issued a proclamation calling for 75,000 volunteers for three months, being misled by uninformed counselors as to the magnitude of the task before him. The last word of that proclamation hardly ceased to vibrate along the telegraph wire, before the call was filled. Men and money were poured into the lap of the General Government with lavish hands. The people who loved their country --- and who did not --- could not give enough. Patriotism thrilled and pulsated through every heart. The farm, the shop, the office, the store, the factory, the bar, the pulpit, aye, even the college and school houses offered their best men, their lives and their fortune in defense of the unity and honor of their government and flag. Party lines were ignored or lost sight of and bitter words, spoken in the moment of political heat, were forgotten and forgiven, and joining hands in a common cause, northern democrat, republican and conservative repeated the oath of America's soldier-statesman, "by the Great Eternal, the Union must be and shall be preserved."
But alas, 75,000 men were not enough to subdue the rank rebellion. Nor were ten times that number. The war continued to rage, and call succeeded to call, until, to the doubting heart, it looked as if there were not men enough in all the northern States to crush these traitorous foes within the limits of our own glorious land, helped and aided as they were by traitorous friends across the ocean. But to every call for either men or money, there was a ready and willing response. And it is the boast of the people that, had the supply of men fallen short, there were women brave and daring enough, aye, even patriotic enough, to have offered themselves a willing sacrifice upon their country's altar. Such were the impulses, motives and actions of the patriotic sons of the north, among whom the loyal sons of Wisconsin made a conspicuous record, and the boys from Richland county were not in any wise behind in the movement to preserve the life of our government.
The county government made such appropriations as seemed to them proper and right for the support of the families of those who volunteered; and of these matters we will treat first. Immediately upon receipt of the President's proclamation, the citizens of Richland county proceeded to recruit a company, but, owing to the distance from the seat of war, could not get them accepted under the three months' call, and the Scott Guards were mustered in under the first call of three years.
The first action of the board of supervisors, in regard to the volunteers then going and gone to the front, was at a special session held July, 1861, when the following resolution was adopted:
Resolved, That the families of non-commissioned officers, musicians and privates, mustered into the service of the State or of the United States, in pursuance of any law of this State, being residents of this county, in addition to the pay provided for the rank of soldiers of the rank aforesaid, shall receive the sum of $4 for four months, to be paid only to the families that really need it; and that such appropriation be paid by the county treasurer upon the presentation of a certificate of a justice of the peace of said county, to the effect that the applicant is of the class above specified, and in need of said appropriation."
At its November session, the same year, the board, the time for which the previous resolution provided having expired, appointed a committee to make and report to them an order making an allowance to the families of the volunteers. In accordance with the above instructions, when the committee made its report, the board appropriated the sum of $2500 to meet the expenses of the partial support of the families of volunteers, to be applied under the direction of the board. It was also determined that it should be the duty of the town boards, when an application was made to them for relief, by the family of a volunteer in the United States service, to inquire into the case, and if necessary, to provide such aid and draw orders on the county treasurer, who was instructed to pay them.
Jan. 13, 1862, the board of supervisors made the following order: --- "That the families of non-commissioned officers, musicians and privates mustered into the service of the State or of the United States, being residents of this county at the time of their enlistment, in addition to the pay provided for soldiers of the rank aforesaid, receive from the county the sum of $1 per month during their service; that families having children under twelve years of age, receive the sum of $1 per month for each child, in addition to the sum aforesaid, this allowance to date from Nov. 20, 1861."
The board also passed resolutions defining how, when and where the applications for this relief shall be filed and paid, and rescinds any and all actions of previous boards of supervisors.
At a special session of the board of supervisors held March 4, 1862, the following resolution was adopted:
"Whereas --- There is no money in the treasury with which to redeem the orders issued to the families of volunteers, and whereas, the families are realizing but about one-half the amount therefrom, it is therefore
"Resolved, That it is deemed for the best interests of all concerned that the act passed at January session, for the relief of families of volunteers be, and the same is, hereby declared repealed."
The calls for more men, more victims to the unholy demon of war, now became more frequent and soon there were no young men left in the county to bear the brunt of war's fierce struggle, and yet some must go. And when the call for 300,000 more came in December, 1864, some steps must be taken to fill the county's quota, and a meeting was held in the court house at Richland Centre to take such steps, as seemed advisable, toward that object. The meeting was organized by the selection of Le Roy D Gage, as chairman, and D Downs as clerk.
When the meeting was opened, N L James moved the appointment of a committee on resolutions, which was carried, and Robert Akan, Norman L James and C H Smith were appointed the said committee. (The committee reporting a majority and minority report, and both being lengthy, and neither being adopted, both have been omitted). However the following resolution was adopted:
Resolved, That every man liable to the draft be requested to pay $25 for the purpose of procuring volunteers, and $3 for the purpose of paying the taxes of all enlisted men now in the service incurred by a town tax for war bounty purposes; and that the town board of supervisors be petitioned to hold at the earliest practicable day a town meeting for the purpose of voting for or against a tax of $200 for each volunteer properly credited to the town.
Voted, That C H Smith be, and he is hereby authorized to receive and receipt for the $28 requested from those liable to the draft; and that he is authorized to pay out of money so received the sum of $300 for each recruit properly credited to Richland town.
Voted, That J H Miner, D E Pease, J B McGrew and D L Dows are hereby appointed as a committee to call upon all subject to the draft and urge the payment of the $28 recommended by meeting.
Voted That the names of those paying the $28, as requested, be published in The Observer.
Voted, That the proceedings of this meeting be published in The Observer.
Nearly every one liable to draft met this demand upon them and the quota was filled. It was discovered after the peace, that the State of Wisconsin had furnished a considerably greater number of men than was her proportion, and Richland was one of the counties which had a greater number on the credit side of the account.
But two men had the honor to serve in the three month's service, from Richland county, and those were, Jesse S Miller and William Worden.
The first man from Richland county that was killed in the late war, was George Hamlin, a son of Charles Hamlin, of Richland Centre. This young man laid down a precious life on the altar of his country, at the battle of Pittsburg Landing, April 2, 1862, and was at the time a member of the 11th Ill, Infantry, although a resident of this county.
In almost every one of the regiments that left the State for active service in the field, were some of the brave boys of Richland county. The first company that was raised in the county exclusively, however, was the Scott Guards, who enlisted in the spring of 1861, when the first flush of patriotism burned throughout the land. This company was assigned to the 5th regiment and given the letter H as its designation. During its four years the company saw much active service and the history of the gallant 5th will not suffer by comparison. On mustering into the service of the general government, the regiment was assigned to the Army of the Potomac, its first active duty commencing in the spring of 1862, when they were placed in the front and right nobly did they their devoir, taking a foremost part in the battle of Williamsburg. Arriving on the field about ten o'clock, skirmishers were thrown out to the front and left, the regiment crossing Queen's creek and taking possession of the enemy's earthworks on the right. Here they again formed in line, three companies being deployed as skirmishers, facing the second work, of which the regiment also took possession, suffering severely from a galling fire, which the enemy opened from three other works on the front and left. The regiment again advanced about four hundred yards, two companies being sent forward to support the line of skirmishers, the remainder of the regiment supporting a battery which had taken a position near some low farm houses, and were engaged in shelling the enemy's works.
This position was maintained until 5 o'clock in the afternoon when vastly superior forces made a retrograde movement highly necessary. Col. Cobb, in his official report, says:
"In falling back to the point indicated, the regiment was immediately unmasked by the buildings, and found itself in front of the enemy's center; a heavy regiment, afterwards ascertained to be the 5th North Carolina, which was supported on either flank by other troops, all of whom advanced rapidly, concentrating upon us a rapid and heavy fire. The regiment fell back in good order, every man loading as he retreated, wheeling and returning the fire of the enemy, with the rapidity and coolness of veterans. In this way they fell back to the line of battle of the brigade, which had already formed, taking position in the center, a space having been left for that purpose. A charge being then ordered, the whole line moved forward with a shout and a well directed fire, driving the enemy before them like chaff, they fleeing in wild confusion, leaving the field, over which they had just pursued the retiring line of the 5th, literally strewn with their dead and wounded, and leaving their battle flag behind them, which was captured by a member of the regiment.
This charge turned in our favor the wavering scale of battle. For this they received the thanks of Gen. McClellan.
Gladly would we follow all the movements of this gallant regiment, of which the boys of Richland formed a part, did but space allow. How they struggled at Spottsylvania, the seven days conflict on the Chickahominy, at Rappahannock, Sailor's creek, Winchester, Petersburgh, Mary's Heights, Fredericksburgh and the other famous battles.
In the battle at Mary's Heights, the 5th Wisconsin headed the famous charge which carried a part of the almost impregnable Mary's Heights at Fredericksburg. Greeley says, "Braver men never smiled on death, than those who climbed Mary's Hill on that fatal day." The one gleam of success in that gallant but disastrous fight, was the capture by the 5th Wisconsin of a rebel battery. All else was failure where "we had reason for sorrow but none for shame."
We have inserted here an account of the charge at Rappahanock Station; made by this famous regiment and its twin mate, the 6th Maine, as it is thought to be the only true and most graphic account of one of the most heroic actions of the war, at the request of a number of the men of company H, of the 5th.
Meade selected a position in the neighborhood of Centreville, and Lee, finding his antagonist had pursued a cautious and judicious course, and was ready to confront him upon ground of his own choice, fell back to the line of the Rappahannock, destroying the railroad and all other public property in his path. Meade, smarting at having been out-manoeuvred, and anxious to deliver a return blow, followed him a little to the south and east of Warrenton, striking the enemy a sharp blow at Bristoe Station, but failed to bring him to battle. Both armies rested near the line of the Rappahannock, Lee holding the fords and crossings of the river.
On the evening of the 6th of November, 1863, orders were issued to fill up to the maximum with ammunition, to have three day's cooked rations in the haversacks and be ready to march at day-break. Always prompt, the bugle sounded at the headquarters of "Uncle John" Sedgwick, the grand old commander of the sixth corps, just as the sky began to redden in the east.
The first division of the sixth corps led the advance; the third brigade, commanded by Gen. David Russell, and consisting of the 5th Wisconsin, 6th Maine, 49th and 119th Pennsylvania regiments in front. The 49th Pennsylvania led the entire column. After passing the picket line about two miles out, a line of skirmishers was thrown out to the front and flanks of the column, and in this manner marched without opposition until about 2 o'clock, PM, when at a distance of two and a half miles from the river, a small party of cavalry was struck.
They fell back without seriously attempting to oppose the advance, contenting themselves by observing our approach. We soon arrived near the range of hills bordering the river and the head of the column turned to the left so as to pass down the river. We marched down and parallel with the river, nearly to the railroad and connected with the advance of the fifth corps, under Gen. Warren, which soon after came up in force. The second division of the sixth corps, as it came up, deployed by the right and supported a couple of batteries, which took position on a height from which the rebels could be seen in medium shell range. The enemy were found to be strongly entrenched on the same side of the river, on which we were, holding a tete de pont back of which was a pontoon bridge.
Their works consisted of several strong forts. On the south side of the river, immediately in our front, on commanding ground, was an elaborate redoubt pierced for four pieces of artillery, and containing two twelve pound Parrott guns taken originally from Milroy, at the capitulation of Winchester. Further to the rebel right, at a distance of six hundred feet, was a smaller redoubt, containing two three inch guns, said to have been taken from us, one at Antietam, the other at Chancellorsville. This redoubt was on ground a little lower than the first, and commanded the approaches along the line of the railroad and the river below. The two redoubts were connected by a strong line of rifle pits, and to the rebel left of the larger work, an elaborate and carefully constructed line of breastworks extended up the river and parallel with it for a long distance.
On the further side of the river, on a high hill, that dominated the whole, was a strong fort, in which were planted several heavy guns, I should judge field 32-pounders, and further up, on the same side of the river, a smaller redoubt.
These works were fully manned. In the works on the side of the river facing the federal troops there were two entire brigades. "Stonewall" Jackson's famous old brigade was there, and with them also were the famous Louisiana Tigers. This Louisiana brigade was commanded by Brig. Gen. Hayes, who as senior officer commanded all the forces on that side of the river. The other brigade was that of Gen. Hoke, who commanded a brigade of three large regiments, the 6th, 54th and 57th North Carolina. They were the flower of the rebel army. Well dressed and splendidly equipped, they no doubt considered themselves a match for any equal number of men in the world. The Louisianaians occupied the two redoubts and the rifle pits connecting them and a small party of the line to their left of the larger redoubt, directly in front of the pontoon bridge. The line to their left was held by the North Carolina regiments. Our troops took some little time to deploy and form the desired connections with the fifth corps. As soon as the lines were formed, the skirmishers of the 49th Pennsylvania were called in and the entire right wing of the 6th Maine, under Maj. Fuller, deployed as skirmishers, with orders to push the rebel skirmishers back inside of their works if possible. This was quickly and gallantly done, the artillery aiding in the work, and the men lay down behind stumps, fallen trees, hillocks, and any object which afforded shelter, keeping up a sharp but desultory fire on the entrenched line of the enemy.
In the meantime several batteries had taken position on the ridge in front of the infantry lines and had opened a heavy cannonade on the enemy's entrenchments. Shot and shell flew like hail through the forts on both sides of the river, but without any perceptible effect; the enemy's infantry would lie down in the rifle pits while the storm passed over them, perfectly protected. The artillery, shielded by the heavy curtains of earth, could not be silenced.
Gen. Russell, who commanded the first division of the sixth corps that day, solicited permission to make an attempt with his brigade to carry it by storm. The desired permission was given by Gen. Wright, who commanded the corps that day, in place of Gen. Sedgwick, who had charge of the entire right wing of the army, and preparations were immediately begun. It was trying ground for a charge. Between our lines and the enemy were two long ranges of hilly ground, with several hundred yards of broken declivity between, at the bottom of which was a small stream.
The storming party selected consisted of the left wing of the 6th Maine, and the entire 5th Wisconsin. They were to be supported at some distance by the 49th and the 119th Pennsylvania. Just as the sun touched the horizon the left wing of the 6th Maine deployed on the summit of the first ridge, in the form of a strong skirmish line. The 5th Wisconsin formed a hundred yards behind them, and the whole moved forward.
When the 5th Wisconsin reached the little creek I have spoken of, two or three shells whizzed above the heads of the regiment and burst close by. In another moment the regiment would be under fire. There was an ominous growl along the line, and a half stop. "What is the matter, men?" cried an officer. "We're not loaded; you're taking us in with empty guns," cried half a hundred voices. Some officer riding in the rear, I think one of Gen. Russell's staff, cried out, "Forward! Your orders are to depend entirely on the bayonet." The only answer to this was the deepening of the hoarse murmur along the line and the rattling of the ramrods. Nearly every man had bitten off a cartridge, and was trying to shove it down his rifle barrel as he marched in line. Finally, Col. Tom Allen, who was riding in front of the regiment, had his attention called to the confusion, and ascertaining its cause, thundered out: "Halt! Load at will, Load!" "Be quick, men," Col. Allen added. "Don't cap your guns," cried out the same staff officer from the rear again, "rely entirely on the bayonet." The only answer was a half contemptuous growl, accompanied by the clicking of gun locks all along the line, as the bright pieces of copper were fitted to the tubes.
"That fellow must think we're a pack of greenhorns," the writer heard one of the men say.
The rifles being loaded, the line moved quietly and rapidly forward. The delay caused by loading had considerably increased the interval between the 6th Maine skirmishers and the line of battle. These gallant fellows had pushed fearlessly forward until they came up with the skirmish line formed by the right wing of the regiment, and the two thin lines together rushed headlong on the enemy.
There were less than 370 of them, officers and men, and they had charged nearly ten times their number. The audacity and impetuosity of the attack was such that the enemy recoiled for a moment before it, but seeing how small was the number of their antagonists, they sprang back to the attack and the work became hot.
No better regiment than the 6th Maine ever marched. They had never known defeat, they had never failed to break the enemy in a charge, nor to well back the waves of attack from the front. Between them and the 5th Wisconsin there was a peculiar affection. The men of the two regiments had fraternized from the first. They were together all through the war and had helped each other in many a hard spot.
They had a right to expect that the 5th Wisconsin would not fail them, and they did not. As soon as the 5th Wisconsin passed over the crest of the second ridge, behind which they had loaded their guns, they became exposed to artillery fire. A number of shells were thrown at them, most of which passed over their heads. The deepening shades of the twilight and the rapidity with which they marched down the open slope disarranged the aim of the gunners so that they suffered little or none from this cause. As they came nearer the whistling rush of canister greeted their ears and the regiment broke into the double quick. As they clambered over the swampy river the crakle and roar of musketry burst forth in their front, and as they climbed the bank on the other side they could see the Maine boys clinging to the parapets of the redoubts, or standing in little groups of twos and threes, at the very edge the breastworks, with their bayonets at a charge, or loading their guns and casting anxious glances to see if help was coming. They were falling thick and fast. Then arose from that line of battle a terrible shout. It was not the usual charging cheer. It was a yell of rage, a shout of encouragement, an imprecation of vengeance all in one. Only one shout and then a terribly significant silence. They had no breath to waste. Knapsacks and haversacks were thrown right and left, and through the storm of bullets rushed the 5th Wisconsin to the rescue. A stalwart lieutenant of the 6th Maine leaped on the parapet of the large redoubt and shouted, "For God's sake, 5th Wisconsin, hurry up." The call was not needed. In another instant the line of battle reached the rebel works. The greater part of the 5th Wisconsin rushed over the parapets into the larger redoubt, the remainder swept down the rifle pit to the left and threw itself into the smaller one. They emptied their rifles right and left among the enemy, the muzzles sometimes touching the bodies of their opponents.
Men were found dead next morning with their flesh scorched with powder. A terrible and indescribable struggle ensued. It was "hand to hand and foot to foot." The men from Maine and the men from Wisconsin, without a semblance of organization, fought side by side. The Louisianians, cut off from the pontoon bridge, and with a deep river in their rear, fought desperately. Muskets were seized and torn from the grasp of those who held them, and men grappled and fought with their fists. Inside the large redoubt the melee was frightful. The rebel artillery men stuck by their guns to the last, and fought savagely with rammers, hand spikes, swords or whatever was at hand. A handsome, curly haired young man of the 6th Maine, who curiously enough bore the name of Jeff Davis, killed one of the rebels with a blow so terrible that the stock of his rifle was swept off, and the skull of his opponent shattered to fragments. The next instant he himself fell shot through the head. Sergeant Joe Goodwin, of company A, 5th Wisconsin, and one or two others of the regiment, wheeled one of the captured cannon around to the rear of the traverse on the left of the redoubt, and seeing a line being formed near the pontoon bridge, apparently to charge back upon the fort, hurled among them a double charge of canister intended for us, breaking them up and driving them away from the bridge. As he put his shoulder to the wheel to run the gun back, he fell, shot through the heart.
These two regiments carried on this terrible and unequal struggle for fifteen or twenty minutes, and in that time sixteen out of twenty-one commissioned officers, and 123 out of 350 enlisted men of the 6th Maine had fallen, and of the 5th Wisconsin, seven officers and fifty-six men were killed or wounded. Without commander, without organization, the men fought doggedly and desperately on. Lieut. Col. Harris, commander of the 6th Maine, lay in the ditch with his hip shattered. Col. Tom Allen, of the 5th Wisconsin, partially crippled in one arm by an old wound received in battle when with the Iron Brigade, was struck in the other arm with a rifle bullet, when he had nearly reached the works. Major Wheeler, then next in command, just recovering from an old wound received at the storming of Fredericksburg Heights, fell mortally wounded, near the foot of the slope. Horace Walker, of company A, senior captain of the regiment, fell dead with a rebel bullet through his brain, near the right angle of the large redoubt. Capt. Ordway, of company D, next on the list, fell headlong from the parapet, killed, as he was cheering on his men. Thus the four senior officers of the regiment were struck down. Near Walker, lay dead the gallant Capt. Furlong, of the 6th Maine, who had hitherto passed through all the battles of the regiment unhurt. He was a large, handsomely built man, and was known through the brigade as "the big captain." A warm hearted, genial fellow, he was brave as a lion, and fairly worshipped by his men.
Inside the fort, and a little to the left of Ordway, lay Lieut. McKinley, of the 6th Maine, with his brains blown out. Around him too, lay half a dozen of his men, who had followed him to the death. Thus it was all along that terrible line. The air was filled with a medley of shouts, shrieks and groans, calls to surrender, yells of defiance, imprecations and curses, and through and above all other sounds the unceasing crash and rattle of musketry. The artillery on both sides was silent, for federals and confederates were so mingled together that they could not tell friend from foe.
That portion of the storming party which had passed to the left of the larger redoubt swept down the rifle pits to and beyond the smaller redoubt, crowding the enemy back inch by inch, toward the river at their right flank and rear. As they were broken up they would pass up toward the pontoon bridge, thus strengthening their fellows in the fight, going on around the larger redoubt. A number of them, however, were cut off, and attempted to escape by passing out of their works at the extreme right and wading the river near the abutments of the railroad bridge. Here a terrible affair happened. The water was up nearly to their armpits, and as they were in the stream the Union soldiers, mad with the rage of battle, pushed down to the water's edge and poured a pitiless fire upon them. Many sunk, wounded, in the water, with a bubbling shriek, losing thus whatever chance of life was left after the bullet had done its work. The horrors of the situation struck even the battle maddened soldiers, and suspending their fire, they shouted to the confederates to come back and surrender. The greater part of those in the river started back to surrender, but when they came near the shore an officer stepped from behind a stone abutment and ordered them to return again, enforcing his order by flourishing his sword. The men again wheeled around in the water and began splashing their way to the opposite shore, and again the pitiless hail of bullets was showered upon them. At last they gave up the attempt and sheltered themselves behind the ruined abutments of the bridge, where they cried out for "quarter," and about seventy-five surrendered.
I have no means of knowing who the officer was that prevented his men from surrendering sooner, and thus kept up the useless slaughter, but I have reason to believe it was Col. Goodwin, the commander of the Louisiana brigade, who surrendered afterwards with his men.
Meanwhile, and as soon as a lodgment had been effected on the enemy's works, Gen. Russell had sent back to bring up the 49th and 119th Pennsylvania in support. There seemed to be an almost interminable delay in their coming up, and staff officers were sent in quick succession to hurry their movements. At last they came, and with a cheer the 49th and the greater part of the 119th went up to the assistance of their comrades. They were none too soon. The rebels had prepared for a last desperate attempt to regain the large redoubt, from which an incessant storm of bullets was sweeping the pontoon bridge, striking down all who attempted to escape.
They had gathered in force as near to the bridge as they dared. A part of the force on their left, which had not been closely engaged, was brought up to assist the disordered ranks of the Louisianians, and a hot enfilading fire had already been opened on the overtaxed forces in and around the large redoubt. This fire, passing through the thin and shattered ranks of the 5th Wisconsin and 6th Maine, smote full on the right wing of the 119th Pennsylvania and threw them into disorder. Many of them cast themselves into the dry ditch at the foot of the slope, and added to the horror and confusion of the moment by returning the fire of the rebels, regardless of the fact that a line of their own comrades was between the two fires. They were, in a moment, however, gallantly rallied by their major and led up in line with the rest.
And now the lines thus reinforced swept on. The rebels pushed to the river's brink, threw down their arms by scores, and were sent to the rear. The enemy were entirely swept away from their extreme right up to the large redoubt and along the rifle pits to a point in front of the pontoon bridge.
The last stroke was now given. Gen. Russell at last seeming to realize the fact that he had led his brigade into a battle against large odds, had sent orders to Gen. Upton, commanding the second brigade of the same division to charge with two of his regiments on the right. That officer selected the 5th Maine and the 121st New York regiments, and forming them in line of battle behind the crest nearest to the rebel lines, ordered them to pile up their knapsacks and all other superfluous weight; and then marched rapidly forward. As they neared the rifle pits they received a scattering volley of musketry. "Steady! forward men! don't fire a shot," shouted Upton, and with a ringing cheer, forward they go over the rifle pits, with a rush, crowding the enemy to the river bank, where they surrendered, and now the conflict is over. The sullen prisoners were marched to the rear. Some few escaped up the river in the darkness, which by this time had settled down like a pall. A few stray swimmers plunged into the water, and swam over to tell the tale of their comrades across the river. The rattle of the musketry died away into silence, and soon the lanterns were flashing over the field as the sad work of gathering up the wounded was begun.
What were the results? The crossing of the river was seized and a lodgment made on a salient point of Lee's general line, which compelled him to fall back to the line of the Rapidan. Four guns with caisson and ammunition, five limbers with full complement of battery horses, all complete; one stand of colors, 500 prisoners, and many hundred stand of small arms, were taken by Russell's brigade alone. Two strong redoubts were taken by a line of battle not much heavier than an ordinary skirmish line. To the two regiments of Upton there surrendered over 1100 prisoners, with seven stand of colors. Most of these were from the regiments which had been broken and driven from their positions by Russell's brigade, and escaped from them only to fall into the hands of Upton's men.
When it is remembered that the entire strength of Russell's brigade was 1549, officers and men, and that all these results were accomplished by them, assisted only by two regiments of another brigade, against more than double their number, thoroughly prepared in a chosen position, I think I am warranted in saying that the achievement is without a parallel in the history of the war. The confederates fought under the eye of Gen. Lee, who stood with Gen. Jubal Early in the fort on the opposite side of the river, and was a witness of the disaster to his forces. The chaplain of the 54th North Carolina, in an account of the battle written by him to the Richmond Examiner, three days after, said: "The brigade (Hoke's) is almost annihilated; the 54th has only one captain left, with five lieutenants and fifteen men remaining. The fragments of the brigade are now collected under the command of Lieut. Col. Tate, of the 6th, and attached to the Louisiana brigade. These fragments now number about 275 men."
The meed of praise was given to the 6th Maine and 5th Wisconsin for this unparalleled feat, by all who witnessed it, and had it not been for the desperate tenacity with which they clung to the earthworks they had stormed, until the supports came up, the attack must have resulted most disastrously to our troops. Nor can I close this already too long account more fitly than by quoting from the general order issued from brigade headquarters the second day of the battle:
"Officers and soldiers: --- Your gallant deeds of the 7th of November will live in the annals of your country, and will be not the least glorious of the exploits of the Army of the Potomac. To have carried by storm with a mere skirmish line and a feeble support in numbers, powerful earthworks, a strong natural position manned by the flower of the rebel army and strengthened by artillery, would be an achievement that a division of our forces might well feel pride in, but it was not too much for the gallant sons of Maine and Wisconsin."
After a long term of service, having, many of them, re-enlisted as veterans, the regiment was mustered out at Madison, July 20, 1865.
Company D, 11th Wisconsin Infantry, was organized in September, 1861, and first went into camp at camp Randall, where the men were mustered into the service of the United States, with Jesse S Miller, as captain. The 11th regiment was attached to the second brigade, under Gen. Hovey, in Gen. Steel's command, and under orders to proceed south, passed through Missouri to Arkansas. Its first engagement, of any note, was at Bayou Cache, July 7, 1862, when companies D, G, H, and I, held in check a vastly superior force of rebels, until the arrival of reinforcements. After this conflict the regiment arrived at Helena, on the 13th. In October they returned to Pilot Knob, Mo., where they remained in camp all winter. March 13, 1863, embarking at St. Genevieve, they soon landed at Memphis. From this point they were sent to Milliken's Bend, La., and were assigned to a position in the second brigade, fourteenth division of the thirteenth army corps.
When the morning of the 1st of April dawned, it found the 11th leading the advance, and at Anderson Hill, near Port Gibson, Miss., they encountered the enemy and after a warm engagement, which proved no "April Fool business" the rebels were driven back in dire confusion. On May 15th, they took part in the battle of Champion Hills, and the following day cut off the retreat of the "boys in gray" at Black river bridge, where there was a warm contest, the boys of the 11th taking upward of a thousand prisoners, and a regimental stand of colors, as trophies of their valor.
On the 19th the regiment was found in the trenches before Vicksburg, and they participated in that terrible and fatal charge made on the 22d of May. They were employed quite actively in the days of siege that lay before that place, and took a part in the ceremonies of the surrender on the glorious 4th of July, 1863. Immediately after that event, the regiment received marching orders and started for Jackson, taking a prominent part in the "second Teche campaign" and going as far as Opelousas. Returning over almost impassable roads and through mud and mire they took shipping at Algiers, on the 19th of November, for Brazos Santiago, Texas, where they received orders to reinforce the forces under Gen. Banks, at Arkansas Pass. While here, fresh orders were received sending them to Fort Esperenza, w(h)ere they arrived too late to assist Gen. Wasburne in reducing the enemy at that place. Three-fourths of the regiment having re-enlisted, they were relieved from duty on February 11th and mustered in as veterans on Feb. 13th. Those who did not see fit to re-enlist were transferred for the balance of their term of service to the 33d regiment. The veterans in accordance with the custom of the war department, were allowed to return home on furlough of thirty days, and they reached Madison, March 21st, and received a magnificent ovation from the hands of the State authorities and citizens of that city.
Having enjoyed themselves to the top of their bent, they returned, leaving the State on the 25th of April, and proceeded to Memphis. They afterward took part in the various expeditions in northern Mississippi and Alabama, and always received the commendation of their commanders for good and efficient service. The regiment was mustered out at Mobile, Ala., Sept. 4, 1865, and reached home on the 18th of that month and year. The company from Richland passed through many vicissitudes in its career with the regiment, losing many officers by death and resignation, so that Henry Toms, who left only as a corporal came back the captain, more by the law of promotion than for any galiant deeds, for where all were heroes none could be called the bravest and most gallant. They left many of their comrades sleeping in southern graves, to be remembered and talked of when the shades of night have settled over a resting world, and whose names are enshrined in every patriotic breast.
Company H, of he same regiment was partly raised in this county, and marching shoulder to shoulder with their comrades of company D, passed through the same experiences and participated in all the honor that hangs around the banners of the gallant 11th, a braver regiment than which never left the Badger State. Company I, 12th Wisconsin Infantry, was also raised in the county of Richland, which was intensely loyal during the entire course of the war. This fine regiment was mustered into the service during the fall of 1861, at Camp Randall, Madison, and Col. George E Bryant made colonel. They left Madison, the 11th of January, 1862, with orders to report at Weston, Mo. They participated in all the engagements that led up to the seige of Vicksburg and were in at the submission of that rebel strong-hold, the reduction of which has been called "the crowning glory of the war in the valley of the Mississippi."
After the fall of that place, they were ordered to Natchez, Miss., where they remained until the 22d of November, 1863, when they proceeded by steamer up the Mississippi, and landing at Vicksburg, marched thence ten miles, northeast to Bovina station, where they went into camp on the 26th, as guard to the railroad near the Black river. Under orders to join an expeditionary force under Gen. Gresham, they broke camp at Bovina on the 4th of December, and proceeding down the river from Vicksburg, landed early in the morning of the 6th, at Natchez. Here they joined the others forces assigned to the expedition, and immediately marched in pursuit of Wirt Adams' rebel command. Failing to discover any considerable force of the enemy, they returned on the 8th to Natchez, remaining in camp at that place until the 21st, when they again marched on a scouting expedition to Fayette, Miss., from which they returned on the 23d, and went into camp on the Pine Ridge road, near the fortifications. Embarking at Natchez on the 23d of January, 1864, they landed at Vicksburg on the following day, and marching thence ten miles in a northeasterly direction, encamped on the 25th, at Hebron, where the 12th was re-organized as a veteran regiment.
Of 667 present with the regiment, 602 had been in the service upwards of two years, the remaining sixty-five having joined by enlistment since its organization. Five hundred and twenty of those whose term of service permitted, re-enlisted, and were again mustered into the service for three years. Of the others, forty-eight promised to re-enlist on the expiration of two years from their respective dates of enrollment.
On the 3d of February, they left camp at Hebron, accompanying the celebrated Meridian expedition under command of Gen. Sherman. On the following day, they took part in the action at Bolton, Miss., with a loss of three killed and four wounded. The enemy was forced back a distance of two miles across Baker's creek, where the regiment repaired and held the bridge, until relieved on the morning of the 5th by the arrival of the third division. With the advance of the expedition, they marched through Jackson, Hillsboro and Decatur, to Meridian, and thence to Enterprise and Quitman, destroying the railroad track, bridges, store-houses, and other rebel property on their route. Returning by way of Decatur, Canton and Black river bridge, they re-entered camp at Hebron on the 4th of March, having marched in thirty-one days about 416 miles. The veterans of the regiment left Hebron on the 13th of March, and embarking at Vicksburg, proceeded up the Mississippi to Cairo, Ill., and thence by rail to Madison, Wis., where they arrived on the 21st. After a public reception at the capital by the State authorities and members of the Legislature, they remained at Camp Randall until the 31st, when the men received their pay and dispersed to their homes, in the enjoyment of veteran furlough.
The veteran 12th left the regimental rendezvous at Camp Randall on the 30th of April, and arrived on the 3d of May at Cairo, Ill., where they were joined by the non-veteran portion of the regiment, which had been left at Hebron, Miss. Accompanying the forces of Gen. Gresham, they embarked at Cairo on the 10th, with the first brigade, to which they had been transferred, and proceeding up the Tennessee river, landed on the 14th at Clifton, Tenn. They left Clifton next day, marching by way of Huntsville and Decatur, Ala., and Rome, Ga., a distance of nearly 300 miles, they joined the Army of the Tennessee, with Gen. Sherman's forces, at Ackworth, Ga., on the 8th of June. They moved forward to Big Shanty on the 10th, and next day formed line of battle, and charged two miles through the timber, capturing the first skirmish line of the enemy in front of Kenesaw Mountain, before which the regiment was constantly employed in picket and fatigue duty, with frequent engagements with the enemy, during the remainder of the month, sustaining a loss of thirty-four men in killed, wounded and missing.
Participating in Gen. McPherson's celebrated movement to the right of the army, they moved from position before Kenesaw Mountain on the evening of the 2d of July, and marching during the night by a circuitous route, took position near the Chattahoochie river, at the mouth of Nickajack creek. On the 5th, forming a part of our line, they advanced towards the creek, driving the enemy from a strong line of rifle pits and forcing him across the stream, to his main works. They fortified the point thus gained and advanced the picket line to the bank of the creek, occupying the position until the night of the 8th, when bridges were built and the skirmish line thrown across the stream, and established in rifle pits on the opposite bank. During the succeeding night, the enemy abandoned his entire works on the right bank of the Chattahoochie and fell back to the south side of the river. At this time the regiment was transferred to the first brigade, third division, seventeenth army corps, with which they were afterwards identified. On the 17th of July, they were again put in motion towards the left with the Army of the Tennessee. Crossing the Chattahoochie at Roswell's Mills, they passed through Decatur, on the Georgia railroad, six miles northeast of Atlanta, on the 19th, and crossing the railroad which they destroyed at this point, advanced on the following day towards Atlanta. Forcing back the enemy's skirmishers, as they advanced, they bivouacked in line during the night, and on the 21st, as part of a storming party, carried a high fortified ridge in front, about four miles from Atlanta, which they held, although suffering severely from an enfilading fire on the right, repulsing the enemy's repeated attempts to recover the position. In this action the 12th captured forty-eight prisoners and 500 stand of arms, sustaining a loss during the day of 154 in killed, wounded and missing.
During the night, the rebels evacuated their works on the right, which were next morning occupied by our troops. About noon, the enemy in great force fell upon the left of the line, outflanking and forcing back the fourth division, which held the extreme flank of our army, and pushing rapidly forward to position in rear and within 300 yards of the works occupied by the 12th Wisconsin. While passing forward to the assault, the sixteenth corps, which arrived at this juncture on the field of battle, fell in turn upon the rebel rear, and with the seventeenth corps, succeeded in capturing nearly the whole of the attacking force. The general commanding the brigade having been wounded early in the action, Col. Bryant took charge of the brigade, Lieut. Col. Proudfit assuming command of the regiment. During the conflict, the heroic 12th fought oftimes in two wings, back to back, with the enemy on both fronts and one flank, one wing of the regiment being unprotected with works. They held their own, however, but the rebels continued the engagement outside of the works on the left and point of the ridge during the night, fighting often over the embankment at a distance of eight or ten feet, until near daylight, when they retired.
In the general movements of the army, as it closed upon Atlanta, they marched on the evening of the 26th, with the Army of the Tennessee around the rear of the Army of the Cumberland, which they joined on its right the next day, advancing by the left on the city. Having taken part in several skirmishes, as they advanced, the regiment bivouacked in line for the night. Next morning the forward movement was continued until at the noon halt; the rebels attacked the fifteenth corps, then about two miles in advance. The 12th, which was immediately ordered to their rescue, advanced on the double quick and outstripped all other re-enforcements, arriving just in time to meet and check the onset of the confederates, which had succeeded in outflanking our troops. Taking their position on the right, they were soon joined by other bodies of men, and "the battle was on once more" and raged with great fury until sunset, when the "Johnnies" withdrew from the field, their successive charges on our lines having met with great slaughter.
Next day the 12th was relieved, and for a change was set to doing picket and fatigue duty in the trenches before Atlanta, constantly exposed to the rebel fire until the 26th of August, when they set out with the Army of the Tennessee, marching toward Sand-town, on the right, but next day their direction was changed to the southeast, and on the 28th they arrived at Fairburn. Having destroyed the Atlanta & West Point railroad at this point, they again took up the forward movement, and on the 31st of July, they arrived at Jonesboro, twenty-two miles from Atlanta, on the Macon & Western railroad, having been engaged in heavy skirmishing as they took up their position, and they formed in line between the seventeenth and eighteenth corps. Shortly after noon, the enemy attacked in heavy force, and after a severe battle, were repulsed, our troops occupying the ground during the night. During the battle at this point, on the1st of September, the regiment occupied position on the extreme right of the seventeenth corps and sustained but slight loss. Next day they marched in pursuit of the enemy, who had retreated during the night, leaving his wounded, with many stragglers, upon the field. Having advanced six miles to Lovejoy, where the rebels had occupied a new position, strongly fortified, the regiment was ordered forward and drove the enemy's skirmishers from a wooded hill, upon which they had been posted, to the main force, when line of battle was formed, in which the regiment retained position until the 5th. At this date, they marched on the return to Atlanta, near which they went into camp on the 8th, and remained until late in the fall.
But it would be needless to give all the history of this one of Wisconsin's most famous regiments, for it is well written in all the general histories of the war. Suffice it to say that after participating in all the campaigns around Atlanta, it took its way with the rest of Sherman's forces in that unparalleled march to the sea, and was, on the conclusion of hostilities, mustered out July 16, 1865, having suffered, while in the service, a loss of fifty-nine killed in action, thirty-two who died of wounds and 202 of disease.
Company B, 25th Wisconsin Infantry, was organized in July 1862. And on the 14th of September, at Camp Solomon, at Lacrosse, they were mustered into the service of the United States, with Col. Milton Montgomery as the head of the regiment and Captain W H Joslin as the commanding officer of the company. On the 19th of September they left the State with orders to report to Gen. John Pope, at St. Paul, Minn., to aid in suppressing the Indian difficulties in that State. After contributing to the preservation of tranquillity among the settlers, and airing the festive redskin, they returned to the State and went into quarters at Camp Randall, where they arrived Dec. 18, 1862. Leaving there Feb. 17, 1863, for Cairo, whence they were taken to Columbus, Ky., and from there to join the army in the vicinity of Vicksburg. The regiment participated in the fatal mistake made by Sherman when he undertook to take the Yazoo bluffs, and had better success in the rear of Vicksburg. Here they remained, taking a hand in the trials and labors of that sanguinary siege, losing many a man from the diseases incident to that swampy ground. They enjoyed the spectacle of seeing the banner of the so-called Confederacy lowered from the heights of the city and the stronghold of strongholds delivered unto their keeping.
They soon received marching orders and proceeded to Helena, Ark., where they remained employed principally in provost duty, until the 1st of February, 1864, when they embarked, and proceeding down the Mississippi, landed on the following day at Vicksburg. Marching with the celebrated Meridian expedition, under command of Gen. Sherman, they left that place on the 3rd, and moving across the State of Mississippi, reached Meridian on the 14th. After waiting here for two days the march was resumed, and the regiment arrived on the 26th at Canton, having marched a distance of 275 miles from Vicksburg. They left Canton on the 1st of March, and marched to Vicksburg where they again went into camp, and remained until the 13th, when they again embarked, going up the Mississippi river to Cairo, arriving there on the 20th. Here they received orders to proceed to Columbus, Ky., and had proceeded part of the way when they were countermanded and they were ordered to return, which they did. Re-embarking they proceeded up the Tennessee to Clump's landing, where they landed and bivouacked for the night. On the following day they marched thirteen miles to Purdy, Tenn., having met and routed a body of rebel cavalry under Col. Wisdom. They returned to the transports and the next day resumed their progress up the river. On the 2nd of April they landed at Waterloo, Ala., and marched thence to Decatur, where they had a sharp skirmish with the enemy on the 17th. At this point the regiment was stationed for guard duty until May 1st, when they started on a march through Huntsville, to Chattanooga, Tenn., arriving there on the 5th. They immediately moved forward to join our forces under Sherman and formed into line at Resaca on the 9th of May, under the fire of the rebel guns.
From this time until the evacuation of Resaca, they were constantly under fire. They participated in the battles of the 13th, 14th and 15th of May. After the decamping of the "boys in gray" they were pushed forward in pursuit, skirmishing every day until the 26th, when within two and one-half miles of Dallas, when forming in line shortly before noon, they were engaged in skirmishing until evening, when they advanced through Dallas, which had been abandoned by the enemy, and bivouacked for the night a short distance south of the town. On the 27th, they advanced to the front, and were engaged during the three following days in heavy skirmishing with the enemy, repulsing his attacks upon the picket line with heavy loss.
They occupied position in the front line until the 1st of June, when they were withdrawn from the trenches before daylight, and participating in the general movement to the left to turn the rebel position at Allatoona Pass, marched six miles to Pumpkin Vine creek, near which they bivouacked for the night, and on the afternoon of the following day changed position a mile to the right, where they were attacked by the enemy's batteries, which were soon silenced by our artillery. Crossing the stream on the 3d, they advanced four miles, and having erected breast-works during the night, occupied the position until the afternoon of the 5th, when they moved four miles to the right. Next day they were again put in motion, and passing through Ackworth, encamped nearly a mile from the town, remaining until the 10th, when they advanced four miles, accompanying the army of the Tennessee in the movement to break the rebel lines between Kenesaw and Pine mountains. On the following day, taking the lead of the second brigade, they advanced two miles to the railroad, where line of battle was formed with the enemy on their flank and front. While holding this position, company C was detailed at three in the morning of the 12th, to build rifle pits in front, which they finished by daylight, and next day company D was employed in opening a road through the woods in their rear for more convenient access to the teams. In the evening companies C, H and K, occupied the front line of rifle pits, and on the 15th, companies B, D, F, G and I were thrown forward on the skirmish line, under command of Lieut. Col. Rusk, the balance of the regiment taking possession in the evening, in the front line, whence they afterward moved forward to support the picket line against the anticipated advance of the enemy.
The enemy having abandoned his line on Lost Mountain, on the 17th, they advanced on the 19th across the rebel works in their front, and in the afternoon, advanced still farther towards Kenesaw Mountain, establishing position on the crest of a hill, which they proceeded to fortify. Here they were engaged in siege and fatigue duty, constantly exposed to the enemy's fire, until the morning of the 3d of July, when they were put in motion to accompany the movement of the Army of the Tennessee, on the right of our forces. Marching on the road between Kenesaw and Lost Mountains, they advanced three miles, where they constructed breastworks, and were ordered to support a battery, under heavy fire from the rebel artillery. They subsequently occupied the works in their front, which were abandoned by the enemy, and on the 5th continued the movement to the right. Marching on the Sandtown road, they encamped in the evening two and a half miles from the Chattahootchie river, remaining until the 7th, when they advanced two miles toward the river. They again moved on the 9th, and passing through Marietta, where they bivouacked for the night, forded the Chattahootchie on the following day, going into camp on the south side of the river.
Participating in the general advance of the army, they marched at noon on the 17th, and crossing the railroad next day, passed through Decatur on the 19th, encamping on the right of the Army of the Tennessee, in rear of Gen. Logan's command, on the following day. On the 21st, with a section of artillery, they moved back to Decatur, under orders to guard the flank of the army trains, and next day companies B, E, F and I, of the 25th, with four companies of an Ohio regiment, moved forward on a reconnoissance, the enemy having been reported in heavy force on their front. Companies D and G being detached on picket duty, the remaining companies, C, H and K, with a battery of artillery, under command of Maj. Joslin, were left in charge of the camp. The enemy having advanced in greatly superior force (two divisions of Wheeler's corps), Col. Montgomery's command fell back to camp, and after a gallant resistance, the whole force retired to the town, and subsequently half a mile beyond, where the advance of the rebels was finally checked. The train was saved, but the regiment sustained a loss of fifteen killed, fifty-seven wounded, twenty-five missing, and three prisoners, among the latter of whom was Col. Montgomery, who was also severely wounded. On the 23d, having buried the dead, and provided for the wants of the wounded, they marched through the town, and proceeding two miles on the Atlanta road, erected breastworks, and bivouacked until the 25th, when they advanced three miles, encamping in line, protected by breastworks.
They were thenceforward constantly occupied in the active duties of the siege, until the evening of the 26th, when they were put in motion, accompanying the movement of the Army of the Tennessee. Continuing the march, they struck the Atlanta and West Point railroad near Fairburn on the 28th, and having spent the next in destroying the road, they resumed the march, on the morning of the 30th, and advancing towards the Macon railroad, bivouacked for the night near Jonesboro. They were next day present at the battle of Jonesboro, but were not actively engaged. On the 2d of September, they moved forward eight miles in pursuit of the retreating enemy, when they fortified a position near Lovejoy Station, and remained until the 6th, at which date the return march was commenced. They arrived on the 8th at East Point, six miles from Atlanta, on the Macon & Western railroad. They followed the flag and fortunes of that incomparable soldier, W T Sherman, to the sea, and were finally mustered out of the service June 7th, 1865.
This regiment was recruited under the call of Feb. 1, 1864, for 500,000 men, was rapidly filled to the maximum, and organized under the superintendence of Col. Frank A Haskell, previously adjutant of the 6th Wisconsin, whose muster into service as colonel dates from the 23d of March. After a short time employed in acquiring familiarity with their duties as soldiers, they left Camp Randall on the 10th of May. From Washington they proceeded on the 16th to the front, taking position on the 18th in the first brigade, second division, second army corps, the movements of which they have since accompanied.
It would be doing gross injustice to the gallant conduct of this, as well as other Wisconsin regiments, to attempt a detailed statement of their services, in the absence of the data furnished by a regimental report, but we will simply say that after participating in all the battles of the Army of the Potomac and James, and adding fresh laurels to the wreath of Wisconsin, they were mustered out July 12, 1865. A criterion of the trials of the regiment is the losses incurred while in the front, and is given by the official records as follows: Killed seventy-nine, died of wounds, forty-seven, died of disease, 170, and mustered out from physical debility and wounds, 214.
This regiment was organized and recruited under the call for volunteers for one year. The date of the muster-in was March, 1865. It participated in all the campaigns in Alabama and Tennessee, and was mustered out Sept. 25, 1865.
The 6th Wisconsin Battery was principally recruited in the county of Richland, by Henry Dillon, of Lone Rock, afterwards elected captain, and Samuel F Clark, of Prairie du Sac, afterwards senior 1st lieutenant; though it drew volunteers from the adjoining counties of Grant, Iowa, Dane and Columbia. It was the first to receive its full quota of men, and instead of being numbered as the 6th, it should have been the 1st; but those in charge having by some inadvertence failed to follow the prescribed line of "red tape," it failed to get its appropriate number.
The organization was perfected at Lone Rock by the election of officers, on the 25th of September, 1861. Henry Dillon was elected captain, S F Clark and Thomas R Hood 1st lieutenants, and John W Fancher and Daniel T Noyes 2d lieutenants. Capt. Dillon was a veteran of the Mexican War, having been a member of the celebrated Bragg's Battery, officered at the time by George H Thomas, T W Sherman and John F Reynolds, all of whom were afterwards major-generals in the Union army. Lieuts. Clark and Fancher had seen service, having been members of the 1st Wisconsin Infantry --- three months' volunteers.
The battery was ordered to rendezvous at Camp Utley, Racine, and left Lone Rock on the 30th of September. At Racine it was mustered into the United States service on the 1st of October, by Capt. Trowbridge, USA. Here it was expected the battery would soon be equipped and sent to the front; but this hope proved to be a futile one, as weeks passed and the troops were not even uniformed. The thought of having to spend the winter in common army tents, exposed to the rigors of a Wisconsin winter, was not a pleasant one. The troops were poorly supplied with blankets, and the approach of winter brought much suffering; but kind friends at home were not unmindful of the comforts of the battery boys, and from thence they were soon amply supplied with clothing. Despite the forbidding aspect of camp life in winter, there were too many attractions in the city for time to pass heavily, so the winter passed pleasantly and rapidly, and the approach of spring brought marching orders.
Left Racine on the 15th of March, 1862, for St. Louis, at which place stopped but two days, and proceeded under orders to New Madrid. Arrived at the latter place March 21st, and was temporarily assigned to Gen. John M Palmer's division of Pope's corps. The siege of Island No. 10 was then in progress; and the battery being still unequipped for the field, was placed in charge of heavy guns at points along the river, to prevent re-enforcements or supplies from reaching the besieged army; and here they were engaged in several brisk skirmishes with the rebel gun boats.
After the surrender of Island No. 10, Capt. Dillon equipped the battery from a park of guns that had been left by rebels in their flight from New Madrid; and being furnished with horses, the organization was at last equipped for the field, though it remained in New Madrid, on garrison duty, until May 17th, when it embarked on transports, under orders, and proceeded up the Tennessee river to Hamburg landing, at which place it arrived on the 23d, and on the 26th moved to the main line investing Corinth, where, being assigned to Gen. Jeff. C Davis' division, took up a position with Pope's beseiging forces. After the evacuation of Corinth, joined in the pursuit of the retreating forces as far as Boonville, then returned to Rienzi, where it remained on garrison duty during the summer. Broke camp at Rienzi, October 1st, 1862, under orders to report to Gen. Hamilton at Corinth. Took part in the battle of Corinth, October 3d and 4th, going into battle with ninety-three effective men, and sustaining a loss of five killed, including one lieutenant, and twenty-one wounded. After the battle, had the ranks repleted by a detail of twenty-five men from the infantry, and joined in the pursuit of the retreating enemy, returning to Corinth on the 11th. Left Corinth November 2d, marching by the way of Grand Junction, Davis' Mills and LaGrange to Moscow, Tenn. Participating in the general southward movement of Grant's army, passed through Holly Springs and encamped at Lumpkins' Mills; thence followed in pursuit of the enemy, who, having been flanked by a column under Sherman, were evacuating their works on the Tallahatchie and retreating southward. Went as far as the Yocona river, south of Oxford, Miss., when the sacking of Holly Springs, cutting off the base of supplies, caused a retrograde movement. Returned to Lumpkins' Mills, whence one section under Lieut. Clark was sent to Memphis, as escort to a supply train. The remainder of the battery returned to Holly Springs, and thence moved to LaFayette, Tenn., where it was rejoined by the section under Lieut. Clark. On the 2d of January, 1863, went into winter quarters at Buntyn's Station, five miles east of Memphis. Embarked at Memphis, March 1st, and proceeded down the river to Grand Lake, Ark., but returned and encamped on a sand bar opposite the head of the Yazoo pass, four miles below Helena, Ark., whence moved as a part of the Yazoo pass expedition, moving down the pass on transports as far as Greenwood, being nine days in the descent. Disembarked April 3d, and the next day one section under Lieut. Clark moved out and opened on the rebel fortifications. Being ordered to return, re-embarked that night, and early next day set out on the return, reaching the former rendezvous on the 9th of April. Re-embarking on the 13th, proceeded down the river to Milliken's Bend, La. Left the latter place on the 25th, and marched across the peninsula, arriving at the river below Grand Gulf on the 30th. Crossed the river May 1st, taking up the line of march for Port Gibson, the advance being then engaged at Thompson's Hill.
The battery was placed in a position to prevent a flank movement, but did not become actively engaged. On the 2d, pursued the retreating enemy through Port Gibson, as far as Bayou Pierre, where further progress was checked by a burning bridge. The pursuit was resumed the next morning, the enemy making a stand near Willow Springs, where the battery silenced a rebel battery.
The enemy was driven across Black river, burning the bridge after them. On the 9th, resumed the march toward Jackson, participating in the battle of Raymond on the 12th and Jackson on the 14th, sustaining a loss of two wounded at the latter place.
Left Jackson next morning for Vicksburg, retracing our steps as far as Clinton, and on the 16th were again engaged on the hotly contested field of Champion Hills, sustaining a loss of two wounded. Followed the retreating forces to Black river, they destroying the bridge after them. Crossed the next day, and on the 19th reached the enemies fortifications surrounding Vicksburg. Took up a position at once and opened fire, being actively engaged every day during the siege, sustaining a loss of one killed and seven wounded.
After the surrender, remained in camp at Vicksburg until the 12th of September, when embarked on transports and proceeded up the river, under orders to re-enforce Gen. Steel at Little Rock, disembarking at Helena on the 15th. Little Rock being evacuated, remained in camp at Helena until the 26th, then embarked and proceeded up the river to Memphis. Left Memphis October 6th, under orders to report to Gen. Sherman at Glendale, Miss., from which place moved with the fifteenth army corps by the way of Iuka, Miss., Florence, Ala., and Winchester, Tenn., to Chattanooga, arriving at the latter place on the 20th of November. Crossed the river above Chattanooga with Sherman's forces on the 24th, moving with the advance, and the same day one section was planted on the summit of Mission Ridge --- the guns being drawn up by ropes --- maintaining this position and being actively engaged throughout the battle of Mission Ridge. Joined in the pursuit on the 26th, following as far as Graysville, Ga., then returned to Chattanooga, where the guns were turned over to the ordnance officer, having been condemned as worn out in service, prior to leaving Vicksburg.
Left Chattanooga December 2d, and returned to Bridgeport, where remained in camp until the 22d; then moved to Larkinsville, Ala., remaining there from the 26th of December to the 7th of January, 1864; then marched for Huntsville, where on the 9th went into winter quarters, here being equipped with a new battery of 12-pound Napoleon guns. Remained in Huntsville, on garrison duty, until June, one section being in the meantime sent to Whitesboro, on the Tennessee river, where they occasionally exchanged a few shells with the rebel forces on the other side. Left Huntsville on the 22d of June for the front, where active operations were in progress for the reduction of Atlanta; moving by rapid marches to Stevenson. Left Stevenson by railroad on the 30th of June, reaching Kingston, Ga., on the 2d of July, and went into camp. Left Kingston July 11th, and next day took up a position in the fortifications on the Etawah river, near Cartersville, where it remained during the summer.
Those of the original organization who had not re-enlisted under the call for veteran re-enlistment, left Cartersville on the 26th of September, under orders to proceed to Madison, Wis., to be mustered out for expiration of service. Reached Chattanooga and found the railroad track was torn up and in possession of a rebel force; so remained in the cars at Chattanooga a week, leaving on the night of October 3d, and reached Madison on the 10th. Here on the 10th day of October, 1864, the old organization was mustered out of service.
After the departure of the "boys of '61" the company was re-organized as a four gun battery by Lieut. Simpson, the rolls indicating two commissioned officers and ninety-six members, forty of whom were re-enlisted veterans. But the force in camp numbered but thirty-four men. For the next month the battery continued to garrison Fort Etawah subject to all the activities, dangers and uncertainties incident to an outpost in front of manoeuvering armies. Their railroad connections were continually being broken, their commissary supplies being very limited, both horses and men subsisted largely on the country, which was infested with guerillas and rebel cavalry.
The terrible battle of Altoona Pass fought on the 5th of October was within sight and hearing of Fort Etawah, the battery was held in readiness but was not called into action. Immediately after the battle Lieut. Simpson was despatched to Nashville for fresh horses and such other supplies as would put the battery in moving condition. Failing in this mission, on the 1st of November, there remaining twenty-three horses fit for service, they were turned over to the 12th battery, and on the 10th of November the battery proceeded by rail to Nashville, arriving in time to take an active part in the defense of that town against Hood, who invested the city soon after their arrival. Without horses and guns of their own, the men were ordered from point to point, manning guns that were stationed by mule teams. Superintending the construction of artillery defenses, bearing muskets, handling ammunition, etc. etc. This campaign exposed the men to much suffering and many privations. Not until after the decisive battle of December 17th and 18th did they go into permanent quarters near Fort Gillem. Capt. Hood assumed command of the company, Nov. 29. On the 17th of February 1865, the company was ordered to Chattanooga and went into permanent quarters with the artillery reserve corps of that department. The company was filled up with a transfer of about fifty men mostly from the 3d and 8th Wisconsin batteries and were fully equipped as a mounted battery, and were kept busy with camp and drill duties until the 26th of June, when they were ordered to the State to be mustered out --- whence they immediately proceeded under Capt. Simpson, who assumed command on the resignation of Capt. Hood, May 21st. The company arrived in Madison, at 6, PM, July 3d, wherupon the entire command "broke ranks" without orders. Very many of the boys were able to reach their homes in time to celebrate Independence Day. On July 6th, the company re-assembled at Madison and were formally mustered out of the service.
This regiment was organized March 12, 1862, with a total muster of 1127 men, under the command of Col. C C Washburn, who was afterwards promoted to the rank of brigadier general; was engaged in the campaigns in Missouri, Arkansas, Mississippi, Louisiana and Texas. The movements of cavalry regiments are very difficult to follow, owing to the detached duty they are called on to perform. But it can be said of the 2d, that it never faltered when duty called, nor hesitated to follow when lead by its officers. The regiment was mustered out November, 1865, having lost during its campaigns: Killed in action, sixteen; died of wounds, four; died of disease, 265; died of accidents, 8; and a large loss by reason of discharges for disability.
Among the citizen soldiers of Richland county, those who volunteered to save the country when its existence was threatened, are the following:
[Those marked a, were killed in action; b, died of wounds received in action; c, died of disease; d, died prisoner of war; e, killed by accident.]
Captain, Robert C Hawkins
Lieutenants: George D Lybrand, J J Turner a.
Sergeants: G W Bell, John McMurtrie (promoted captain) a, A H Robinson, G L Laws, E C Hungerford a.
Corporals: Thomas J Edwards, Frank A Moore, James M Ewing a, Benjamin M Lawton, William F Hoyt a, Mathias Lawless (missing), E P Ryder, Frank Thomas.
Privates: J L Jones, R P Mathews, Jonathan Adams, James W Austin, O A Atwood, A H Armore, Edwin Austin, Alexander Y Babb, E H Downs c, M L Babb, Thomas J Bass, W H Bennett, William Barries, Adam C Bell, Adrian Bryant, Thomas Cooper, Henry Collins, A Chismore c, John Douglass, J G Dunken, William Fazel b, Henry Fazel, Peter Fazel, J F Farland, John Frawley, John Gaston, Allen Graham a, H C Gray, Adelbert Helms, Alfred Hiatt, H H Hoyt, Edward Hoke c, Leander W Handy, G W Henthorn, Charles Hickok, L G Householder, Henry M Johnson, L M Jones, N Kinyon (missing), H C Kyger (promoted to 1st sergeant), H H Lewis (transferred to company D), G W Lawton, H A Lamphear, H J Lawton, William Morrison, John Miller, G W Miller, M S Morrison, A G Mardin, G W Moore, E A Mack, J G Sweet, J B Shaffer, G A Shaw, William Landmyer, T J Shannon, G L Smith, Henry Vance, G W Wilsey, C M Woodcock (missing), George Jarvis, James Kinniff, A C Mayfield, G W Mayfield, G L Marshall, Frederick Moody, G W McPheters, W H McPheters, John R Moon, A W Miller, W A Nicks c, O N Northrop, C J Ostrander, H Osgood, Youngs Parfrey, J P Pool, F M Russell, Ami Shireman, Jonathan Spry, W H Shoonmaker c, W A Stafford, William Smith, A L Thomas, W B Walker, H E Walker, C C Kyger, James Kinney, George Bissell (promoted to captain).
Captains: Jesse S Miller (promoted major), Henry Toms.
Lieutenants: William Hill, William H Dawson, A A Chamberlain, G W Dale, Hiram Freeman, Richard Caddell a.
Sergeants: James S Robinson, Albert Carlton c, Nathan Hoyt a.
Privates: P P Fox, Jerman Tadder, Cornelius McCarthy, Richard Caddell, Ephraim Alderman, George P Magill c, Lysander Mathews, fifer; L D Dillingham, drummer c, Philip Acton b, George Alltaugh a, Calvin P Alling, David Aylsworth, Perry Adney, William Allpress, Enos Barrett, Cyrus Butler, Seth Butler, Newel H Bingham, John D Beighle, drowned; David Barrett, David Briggs, Joseph Brace b, Joseph Burke c, J D Brannan c, Thomas Bond c, William Collins, Daniel F Coats, Dighton Chesemore, Israel Cooper c, William M Core, John J Conkel, Daniel Conkel, Judson Cook, John M Doudna, David Fogo, James Fazel, R J Fowler, James W Fox, Charles Fife c, John Gwin, Jerome Grimes, John Gray, James A Huffman, Joseph M Huffman, Daniel W Huffman c, Charles Hamblin, Albert Hoke, David J Heckandom, John M Jaquish, Andrew J Kinney, Renal E Kimball, Delos Lyons, Carey D Lyons c, William H Miller, William Mapes, James S Magill, Amzi McClintock, F M Morrison, Jacob Mann, John Mahler, G N Mickel, Angus Noble c, G Norman, Edwin W Owens, William Parsons, John Riesebeck, James S Robinson, John M Robinson, Robert T Robinson, Benjamin E Robinson c, John S Robinson, George W Rinehart c, William A Sharp c, Benjamin F Slater, Ander Snyder, Franklin Snyder, Benedict Southin a, Martin V B Smith c, Ansel L Standish, Charles A Stevens, Benjamin B Sutton, J Dary, William Sullivan c, James W Thompson, Edwin Tepier, Thomas Barzillai, Benjamin Williams, George C White a, Henry Widner c, Martin Widner, Peter Ward c, Casper Zerving, Levi J Leach, John Thomas, W Bennett c, W H Campbell, W Hill c, James L Miller, R Smalley c, L Berry, J M Fruit, P Hebert, J McKey, W Sellers, V Ewing, H H Wood, Benjamin F Thompson, Alfred Titus c, Isaac Talbot, Robert J Wilson, Comfort E Walker c, Edward C White c, George A Waddell, Peter York, William Hill, Daniel Matocsin, R Amery c, J Creckpan c, A Campbell c, M D Hankins, J W Kennedy a, Joseph M Kennedy a, Daniel Smalley c, T Berry, W Favorite, D T Lindley, W Moon, J W Southard, J A Loveless, S Wiltrout, W Yeager.
Robert King, Alexand Stroud, John S Welch.
Captains: Alexander Christie, James O'Neal.
Lieutenants: E H Mix, Charles Allen, C A Johnson c, John E Lyon, R J Wright, promoted to captain, William N Gates.
Sergeants: C A Bacon a, W H Jacobus a, C Brunaller a, G Parsons c, R C Phillips c,
Corporals: B P Benson c, W N Fay c, J Hughbanks c, D S Washburn c.
Privates: E Ackerman c, S Almy c, William Bilke, H C Baker, R Bacon, H C Blaker, E W Bidwell c, Frederick Bauer, A Colborn c, C A Cox, William A Delap c, James S Dickenson, John Faith c, G W Faith c, F N Hartson a, Frederick Holzinger, R Hornby c, John E Jones c, Benajah Johnson, William Kent c, F Langdon c, J K Lum, A C Miller c, W Mather c, W McElroy c, William P Newman c, D H Olmstead c, J W Perkins, W H Powderly c, Hiram Porter c, S M Quaw, O S Robinson c, William L Richards, G Richardson c, William Risk, P Richardson c, Horace Sheldon c, J F Spaulding, Reuben G Sawyer c, Orison Washburn, W H Walters, E C Wheelock c, I P Camp, J L Lavigne, J Dingman, H S Brown, Robert Clark, B Sutton, B F Rice, B P Benson, Henderson Faith, Pinckney Sutton, George Gray, William Gates.
Captain, Van S Bennett.
Lieutenants: Salma Rogers, Irvin Gribble, Francis Hoyt.
Privates: Eli McVey, Elias Darnell, Jacob Benn, J S Kanable, E P Bender, J C Bender, H A Shaffer, W S Snow, E B Tenney, William Ogden, Silas Benjamin, Albert Savage, John Moon, John A Thorp c, Ephraim Sanford, Charles Toptine c, H J Keepers, Rennsalaer Brewer, Laal Clift, M P Clift, D B Sommers, L M Keepers c, D Yakey, William T Dobson c, John Henthorn c, T S Jordan, S F Moon a, G S Marshall c, Neal Pettygrove, Thomas Dean a, J B Sommers, Angus Barclay, Russell Francis, James E Mace, T R Beighle, L M Mallette, Launcelot Coggin c, John D Welker, F B Clark, W J Woodruff, Jerome Fetterley, Abner Thorp c, J C Toptine c, C H Thompson c, David Tenney c, A B Tyler c, John A Thorp c, Henry Wempner c, A W West, A C Wempner c, Thomas Skinner.
Captain, W H Joslin (promoted to major and brevet lieutenant-colonel).
Lieutenants: William Roush, W H Bennett (promoted to captain) d.
Orderly Sergeants: W C S Barron (promoted to captain), E A Houstein (promoted to 1st lieutenant), John A Mark c, E A Clark c, Adam Albaugh c.
Corporals: W M Gault c, Edward B Waggonner (promoted to 2d lieutenant), Robert D Robinson, Robert M Classin, Abram Miller, Edward Morris, Ansley Wallace c, James R McMahan c.
Musicians: Norman Collins, John W Basye.
Teamster, G Laymon.
Privates: Harry Austin, Simon S Blake, John Bolenbaugh c, Peter Bolenbaugh, Israel Breese, W S Breese a, L D Browning, Jesse G Bunnell (to sergeant), Newton Chesemore, Ole Chistophson c, Stephen V Craig c, Lewis Craigo, J J Crandall c, W Crandall c, Jacob Dickason c, Jacob Dix, Shadrach Dix c, Ellridge Dodge c, John Fitzgerald (promoted to adjutant), Isaac Fish c, William Fisher, George W Freeman c, David Graham c, Benjamin Gray c, Enoch Gray, Charles C Higgins c, Walter A Holbrook c, W M Hough c, Robert F Hurd, David Hough, Thomas D James c, Benjamin B Jewell c, John Johnson, Jesse Jones c, Alexander Jones c, O Klingler, Samuel Kramer, John M Lewis, Samuel Q Lewis c, Franklin E Lyons, Henry W Marden, Samuel Marshal, Greene Mayfield, John McKay, John McNelly c, Ira W Merrill, Charles Mills, George Miller, John Sherer, Francis T Skinner, Albert W Stockton, Emanuel Taylor, Jabob Van Pool, Daniel Wallace c, Stephen J Wallace c, John W Wildemouth c, Jacob Yonder, Horace Alby, Peter F C Bartle, George Myers a, Joseph Moody, John D Nicks, Robert J Nimmick, Ole Oleson a, E E Ottaway, Ole Paulson c, E Pierson, W R Peckham, Charles W Peckham, Peter Penny, George E Perkins, George L Ramsdell, John Reeves, c, W F Rose, Frank E Seeley, Thornton J Smith, David R Taplin, Albert Truesdell c, William Waddell, Hiram Wallace c, M J Welton c, DeWitt C Wood, John Young, O M Byington, John D Brockover, James A Blair, John C Bock, William E Classin, John Craig, Edmund Dosch, Darius P David, Martin Gray, Ansel Hurlburt, Thomas Harris, Ole Hangeson, Albert J Hoyt, James Lewis, George T Logue, Adam J Logue, John M Logue, John L S Logue, Warner C Moore, Robert C McKinney, Neal Pettygrove c, Samuel J Robinson, Cutler Salmon, Albert W Willetts, William Racy a, William E Booth, R F Carver, Dolas Colwin, John Cove, Cassius C Dean, Marcus P David, David G Gillis, William Willoughby, James M Waldeck, George W Wilsey, Andrew Young, M Bennett, J Lafayette Hoyt c, James W Joslin, Timothy Manning b, J M Sutton c, H S Milner, Joseph C Privet, James K Purcell, C C Sutton, William Wright c, Henry Gear b, Seth Rogers, Andrew E Oleson c, Christian Munson, c, Julius C Jenks c, George W Breese, William Brown c, J M Keepers, William Perrigo, W W Sanborn.
Quartermaster: W H Downs.
Privates: J W Wildermouth, George W Freeman c, Henry Scher a.
Private: Aaron Sutton c.
Lieutenants: A S Ripley, James F Lunn.
Privates: J W Barrett, E C Bristol, William Davolt, Adam Fry, J A Hill, B C Hallin, M Hoe, E J Long, Joseph Miller, C H Pearce, C H Rist, J P Rollet, Ezra Reagles, A C Weston, John Welsh, Pattrick Wallace, J D Fazel, David W Davis c, W T Lewis c, George W Ferris, Ezra S Bailey c, Daniel A Diball a, Henry J Haydon c, A C Sheble, Daniel Beggs c, John Black a, Daniel Graves c, John Jacobs c, A J McNurlen c, J C McIntire c, J B Norris c, John Rosenbaume c, George M Wright c, A J W Wood c, John G Wood c, Peter Hamilton, James Bolton c, C F Smith c.
Privates: Samuel Drake, William Recobs, George Kite, Thomas Hesler.
Private: Michael Hull.
Captain: Austin Cannon.
Lieutenants: Cyrus Peck, G S Morris, James G Merrill.
Privates: Samuel W Hill, O P Peck, Samuel Bovee, A H Bush, Patrick Dargan c, T A Dunston, Alfred H Dow, John D Fazel, Solomon Flick, John Gordon, Leo W Mayfield, M Munson, O A Northrup, Edward B Parrish, John G Parrish, John Popp, James A Parrish, R J Passmore a, Samues A Pease c, Cornelius Stetler, Eli Stewart, M Vandusen a, Stephen Welsh, John E Howell, E D Tichenor c, S W Hill, Lester C Jacobs c, Samuel Oleson c, M C Lull c, Fred Acken a, John Brennan c, Alanson Dagett c.
Captain, Henry Dillon.
Lieutenants: Samuel F Clark, Thomas R Hood, John W Fancher, Daniel T Noyes a, James G Simpson, John Jenawein, Sylvester E Sweet, Alta S Sweet, L N Keeler.
Privates: Alonzo B Avery (bugler), Riley O Allen, O J Burnham (bugler), Byron Babcock, James H Bailey, W M Bailey, Fred T Baker, George W Barney a, James Bratt, John L Bennett, S Beaver (corporal), Lorenzo Beckwith, Edward R Bell, Victor A Bennett, Christian Berger, Henry J Bynes, George A Bickford, William S Booth c, William H H Booth, Robert L Booth, A P Briggs, George D Brown a, Edgar E J Burdick, Christian Burga, E M Burnham, E M Barbarin, W A Burnham bugler, Bradley Benson c, Henry P Bowers, Marion Bancroft, George W Benedict, Orman W Bush, Frank Benoit, Robert E Zanks c, B F Brown, corporal, Luman H Calkins, Coulter Campbell c, John Campbell, R B Carpenter, John B Chaffee, A M Clayman, Levi Clayman, William Colburn, A P Clayton, D L Carpenter, William Cavens, Silas S Caspar, Avery Colborn, John Colborn, Edgar P Dixon, James Doyle, Ferdinand Daggett, George D Dalrymple, Silas C Davis, Herman Demmer, Augustus Dilley, W H Dowden, H P Dunning, M Dziewanowski, sergeant, Rezin L Dye, corporal, Daniel J Davis, Henry W Dunning, Addison W Day, Evan W Evans, John C Eagion, Albert D Elston, David Evans, Isaiah Emerson, Levi J Emerson, George Fisher, Hugh Flannery, John A Flemme, Jules Francois, Stephen A Ferris, Charles H Fernald, Francis Francois, Sylvester J Gould a, Daniel Goodwin, sergeant, Thomas Goodman, Peter Green, Henry T Grinnell, E A Grover, Charles H Gerhart, Robert Grey, Daniel W Grey, George W Grey, Henry C Gardner, A J Gardner, George W Giles, William A Gordon; Sergeants: J G S Hayward, Sidney Hawxhurst, Joseph M Hood, William H Hamilton (promoted to lieutenant-colonel), Alexander J Hood, Charles Hutchinzon, and L Bruce Honn a, corporals; John T Higgins, N B Hood, corporal, Edgar F Hayes, Edgar K Hill, corporal, Watson T Hays, Albert Hauxhurst c, Asa Hatch, Andrew Herron, Thomas J Hungerford, Edwin Hungerford c, Milton Hungerford, R Hammond, George T Hill, E J Herdman, William H Harrington, Daniel W Hays, John J Hazard, John G Haskins c, Albert Hurd, William H Holmes, Jonathan O Ide, John B Jackson, Hiram P James, corporal, George B Jones, Wilder B Jacobs, Thomas C Jackson, Benjamin I Johnson c, J L Jones, Griffith Jones, Enoch Johnson c, Thomas R Jones, N B Jacquish, Henry S Keene, quartermaster sergeant, John Keller, August H Knapp, corporal, Jacob Kencig c, Andrew J King, Fred King, Franklin King a, Joseph Lester, Michael Larsen, Lyman Leach, Robert H Lloyd, Samuel F Landon, Jay G Lambertson, Fred Malish, quartermaster sergeant, John C McCann, Lewis H Miller, Henry W Miller c, Andrew J Morse c, P B Moss c, Patrick McMahan, Hiram M Morey, Michael W Murphy c, Armstrong Moore, J Marden c, A W Maxwell, Charles K Maxwell, Charles F Neefe, corporal, Julius F Neefe, Nelson Newbury, Edward J Orr, John H Price, William N Piper, Frank W Parrish, Jerome E Parker, John W Proctor, R M Proctor, E J D Perry c, Alva B Page a, Charles H Pickard, D A Paddleford, H R Phillips, W Phetterplace, J O Phetterplace, Alexander Ray, William Runyon, Edwin Ricker, C E Richardson, Alonzo Rose, Moses Rose c, Alfred Rich, Benjamin F Runyon, John W Robson, Byron W Reynolds, J B Rogers c, Levi Reed, Henry Robson, Rollin Randolph, Ernest Reynolds, Ozin Stoel, D S Stewart, Alpheus Sanderson, S A Sanderson, Fred C Schmidt, Luzi Schneller, P J Seiders, Henry Sigrist, Hiram W Sheldon, Asa Sheldon, George W Spencer a, Cris. Stolz, Fred Swartz, Aaron Southard, William B Southard, William A Stewart, John S Stewart, Alexander Stevans, George W Simonds, John H Seiders, N L Sweet, John M Sweet, Byron W Telfair, Charles E Trowbridge, Menzo Tenant b, Augustus Trunkhill, Gilbert L Thomas a, Griffith Thomas, Benjamin Tutin, Levi Verneps, I VanBrocklin, C B Worthington, corporal, David Wallace, Hiram Wallace, P J Walport, Martin Weaver c, Abram Weaver, Solomon F Wheeler c, H F Wheeler, William W Wyman, E S Williams, A F Wentworth, John Wolf a, George Weller, William West.
Captain, A Hoskins.
Lieutenants: Steven Norris, John J Bovee, Fred S Lovell, A B Smedley, Charles H Ford, William G Ritch, N Stewart, D DuBois, D L Downs, G R Turner.
Sergeants: George W Lawton, James M Hoskins, William Ogden, John Hart, D W Richardson.
Corporals: Arthur B Ewing, Richard Lawton, William Turnipseed, Thomas L Dobson, Thomas M McCarthy, J R Burgett, Ransom N Francis, William W Lilly.
Musician, Daniel U Withrow.
Privates: Jonathan Turner, Elijah Allbaugh, David Austin, Marshall Austin, E J Barnett, William Barnett, Joshua Barnett, William J Barnett, William J Baker, Hiram Bender, Elias E Bender, Aaron Boman, Jr., Joseph Benton, Jr., V L Benjamin, Henry L Bevier, James R Campbell, John A Carpenter, William H Clift, George Clark, Hugh M Clark, Joshua Clark, Benona Davenport, Robert Drake, A M Deets, Alonzo De Pee, Nathaniel Ewing, John Ewing, Stephen Foard, Samuel Fetty, William Fairbrother, Oliver Guess, Abner Gray, Louis Herbert, Olney Hoskins, Edwin P Handy, Albert Hopkins, Albert Howe, Emmett Jaquish, F G Lawton, Willett Leplen, Michael Lynch, John A Morrow, St. Clair S Miller, John M Miller, Orrin Mallette, William Minett, Elijah Merry, Ambrose Osborne, Elias Peckham, Lawrence Roach, Calvin P Rice, Jonathan Stout, Simon P Spry, James G Slater, Jasper N Smith, Mahlon Stewart, Harvey Smith, Noble Sugdon, C D Stewart, David Thompson, Olvier Totten, Joseph Thornton, Thomas W Todd, David Vance, William Wulfing, Jesse W Wentz, Thomas Whitcraft, Benjamin Wingardner, H J Welker, Fernando Walker, J S Waller.
Captains: Charles M Palmer, Newton DeForest, R R Hamilton, Francis M Poynter.
Lieutenants: H W Wadsworth, M F Cutting, Thomas H Damon c, George H Stem, J R Trusdale.
Privates: J H Waggoner, W M Fogo, Nicholas N Pelton c, James Ripperdam c, James Logue c, Nathan L Beele c, William Bartle c, Walter Bowe, William D Birge c, Garrett Joseph Cody c, Craigo, Joseph M Cringo, Harvey F Decker a, L Davis c, Alvardo Goodwin b, John J Jeffrey c, B F Lilly, John M Long c, Michael McDonald, Andrew Halstinson c, John U Hewitt c, George McKenzie c, Willis Maze c, Henry Moll c, George McGuire c, A McAllister c, John H H McFarlin, James Nelson, William J Noble, Joseph A Pettet c, Miles Palmer, Joseph Squires c, M B Sweep c, T F Shepherd, George W Washburn c, Levi Bump c, H G Myers, William W Harvey, L Furstenburg, Walter Palmer, L A Mathews, Orrin Welton, Joseph Trusdale, D J O'Hara, N J Weller, Thomas Graham, Thomas Kanouse, Lyman Creed, Allen Brewer, Arthur Culver, Joseph Thompson, R J Allen, James Poole, F D Fowler, V D Niles, N D Ward, William Nichols, Frank Harris, Francis Patch, I R Trusdale 2d lieutenant, Gerge R Mitchell, surgeon, William Ward, Willis Brewer, H G Hewett, Theodore Wharton, John McKane, Alexander Smith, W T Kinney, Joseph Kerris, Joseph Craig.
Alfred Beckwith, Henry Allen.
Allison Fowler a, J O Keys a.
Peter Hamilton, Joseph Denmon, Jr.
Joseph Kennedy, R M Brown.
John A Drew.
Dr. A W Bickford, surgeon.
Benjamin F Groves b, Eli M Groves, died, W C Groves c.
I T Potts c, H H Benson.
D G James, N L James.
Henry Wildermouth c.
Rodolph Martin, lieutenant; A T Northrup a.
M B H Cunningham.
G W Cooper.
William Knapp, David Ogden.
A Bingham c, Joseph Moon c, Henry Fazel.
Privates: H A Culver, George W Putnam, Miner Robinson, W G James.
Privates: Norman Markley, Andrew J Reeves.
Thomas Armstrong, company D, 22d Wisconsin Infantry; George Miller, company B, 25th Wisconsin Infantry; Seth Butler, 29th Wisconsin Infantry; B B Brownell, 31st Wisconsin Infantry; L Williams, company H, 31st Wisconsin Infantry; E H Liscim, 33d Wisconsin Infantry; C E Clossin, company G, 33d Wisconsin Infantry; J Sennett, 33d Wisconsin Infantry; George Hoke, 37th Wisconsin Infantry; Lewis Henry, company C, 38th Wisconsin Infantry; L Sippy, company B, 40th Wisconsin Infantry; W M Fogo, 42d Wisconsin Infantry, N M Tenney, 43d Wisconsin Infantry; Henry Tenney, 43d Wisconsin Infantry, Henry Collins, company F, 43d Wisconsin Infantry; Charles M Collins, company F, 43d Wisconsin Infantry; John Walworth, chaplain, 43d Wisconsin Infantry; William Minett, company H, 46th Wisconsin Infantry; W B Hoyes, 49th Wisconsin Infantry; W H Wey, 50th Wisconsin Infantry; W F Fisher, company A, 50th Wisconsin Infantry; George J Jarvis, 3d Wisconsin Battery; D P Nichols, 4th Wisconsin Battery; George W Alvord, 7th Wisconsin Battery; Alexander Craig, 7th Wisconsin Battery; Charles Gale, 7th Wisconsin Battery; George W Mayfield, Iowa Cavalry; John Dondna, Iowa Infantry; W J Burchamer, company A, 10th West Virginia Infantry; Sol Townsend, company C, 4th West Virginia Infantry; J W Watts, company G, 9th Indiana Infantry; N Bingham, company K, 156th Illinois Infantry; M L Sherman, company K, 52d Illinois Infantry; A G Pate, 38th Illinois Infantry; C G Mickle, 4th Minnesota Infantry; E J Davis, company E, 20th Iowa Infantry; John Seewright, company K, 24th Iowa Infantry; J A Burns, company H, 101st Indiana Infantry; George Hamblin, 11th Illinois Infantry.
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