Chapter 18 - The Press.

    There is no instrumentality, not even excepting the pulpit and the bar, which exerts such an influence upon society as the press of the land. It is the Archimedean lever that moves the world. The talented minister of the gospel, on the Sabbath day, preaches to a few hundred people; on the following morning his thoughts are reproduced more than a thousand fold, and are read and discussed throughout the length and breadth of the land. The attorney at the bar, in thrilling tones, pleads either for or against the criminal arraigned for trial, often causing a jury to bring in a verdict against the law and evidence in the case. His words are reproduced in every daily that is reached by the telegraphic wire, and his arguments are calmly weighed by unprejudiced men and accepted for what they are worth. The politician takes the stand and addresses a handful of men upon the stand and addresses a handful of men upon the political questions of the day; his speech is reported and read by thousands of men for every one that heard the address. Suddenly the waters of one of our mighty rivers rise, overflowing the land for miles, rendering thousands of people homeless, and without means to secure their daily bread. The news is flashed over the wire, taken up by the press, and known and read by all men. No time is lost in sending to their relief; the press has made known their wants and they are instantly supplied. "Chicago is on fire! Two hundred millions worth of property destroyed! Fifty thousand people rendered homeless!" Such is the dread intelligence proclaimed by the Press. Food and clothing are hastily gathered, trains are chartered, and the immediate wants of the sufferers are in a measure relieved.

    The power for good or evil of the Press is to-day unlimited; the shortcomings of the politician are made known through its columns; the dark deeds of the wicked are exposed, and each fear it alike. Indeed, the controlling influence of a Nation, State or county is its press.

    The local press is justly considered among the most important institutions of every city, town and village. The people of every community regard their particular newspaper or newspapers as of peculiar value, and this not merely on account of the fact already alluded to, but because these papers are the repositories wherein are stored the facts and the events, the deeds and sayings, the undertakings and achievments, that go to make up final history. One by one these things are gathered and placed in type; one by one the papers are issued; one by one these papers are gathered together and bound, and another volume of local, general and individual history is laid away imperishable. The volumes thus collected are sifted by the historian, and the book for the library is ready.

    The people of each city or town naturally have a pride in their home paper. The local press, as a rule, reflects the business enterprise of a place. Judging from this standard, the enterprise of the citizens of Richland county, is indeed commendable. Its papers are well filled each week with advertisements of home merchants and of its business enterprises.

Republican and Observer.
Richland County Observer.

    This paper was established in November, 1855, in the then new village of Richland Center by Israel Sanderson, and was the first in Richland county. The first issue made its appearance on the 20th of November, being a six column folio, very neatly made up and well printed. But little of the matter was editorial, it being mostly clipped from eastern papers. At the mast-head was placed the following: "A county and family newspaper; independent in all things, neutral in nothing."

    The following is a list of the local advertisers in the first issue: D B Priest, W F Crawford, David Strickland and D S Hamilton, attorneys; S W Wallace, physician; L D Gage, land agency; Albert Neff, American Hotel; O H Northrup, wagon-maker; L D Gage, drugs; Milton Langdon and I Janney, nursery; Milton Langdon, S H Austin, L Dillingham and J S Wilson, general merchandise goods.

    The only local items in the first paper relate to the marriage of Charles R Nelson and Melinda A Hawkins, and to the death of Louisa M Austin, Helen L Bowen and Thomas C Carlton.

    A lengthy salutatory was presented in the first issue, by Mr. Sanderson, from which the following is an extract:

    "CITIZENS: --- Having sought a location for the establishment of a public newspaper in your young and prosperous county, it is with pleasure that I announce to you, that with your aid and the blessing of good health, henceforward will be published at Richland Center the Richland County Observer. That this county is now advanced in wealth and population sufficient to keep in tolerable existence a well conducted public journal there can hardly be a doubt; but it must not be expected that the labors and exertions of its editor and proprietor alone can accomplish so desirable an end. Every man who feels for the welfare of his home and county, should remember that unless the county in which he lives can support a newspaper, his property cannot be greatly enhanced in value, or his county respected; and hence to accomplish this, in so new a county, it is necessary for him to subscribe for his home paper, and advertise if he need to, previous to sending his money elsewhere, for such purposes.

    I hope to meet with sufficient encouragement to enlarge the paper at the end of six months, which can only be done by the interest taken in it by the citizens of the county."

    In regard to the mails of the county, showing the disadvantages under which the pioneer paper labored, the editor in the first issue makes the following remarks: "Until there is a different mail arrangement than the present, the readers of the Observer cannot reasonably expect to find news in its columns from Madison, except by chance, much short of a fortnight old. By reference to the notice published in another column, it will be seen that the mail service from Richland City to this place is badly arranged. Why two mails should leave Richland City for Richland Center the same day, we are at a loss to divine. This arrangement gives but one mail a week from that place."

    The notice regarding the arrival and departure of mails referred to, was as follows:

    "From Highland, Iowa county, by the way of Richland City and Sextonville, arriving at Richland Center every Wednesday, at 6 PM. Leaves Richland Center for Highland every Thursday morning, at 6 AM.

    "Viroqua mail, by the way of Bad Ax, Kickapoo, Forest and Fancy Creek, arrives at Richland Center every Tuesday, at 11 AM. Leaves for Richland City the same day, at 12 M., returning on Wednesday at 11 AM, and leaving for Viroqua same day at 12 M.

    "Mails for West Branch and Siresville arrive and depart every Wednesday, at 12 M."

    In the second issue the following direction is given as to "where the Observer may be found": "Office in Mr. Charles Nelson's store building, back room. Entrance through the gate."

    The only marriage notice in this issue is that of George Krouskop to Elizabeth Black. The ceremony was performed Nov. 22, 1855, by Rev. Alfred Brunson.

    The second issue also contained an interesting description of Richland county, from which the following extract is gleaned:

Richland County in 1855.

    "It is true that in 1850, from all that could be ascertained, the aggregate population of Richland county was but 903 inhabitants! To such as are not acquainted with the fact that the census of 1855 shows the population has increased to the almost incredible number of 5584, it would be almost beyond belief, were it not known how rapidly some new regions of country in the United States have been settled. If it should increase at the same ratio for the next ten years, that it has for the last five, it will rank high among the counties of the State in population and wealth. Already it has a people that are making themselves respected abroad for their intelligence and enterprise; for, from a wilderness, where the Indian still found a hunting-ground, in five or six years they have made some parts of the county assume the appearance of having been settled a quarter of a century, whereas it is probably not more than twelve years since the first house was built within the boundaries now known as the county of Richland. This is, without doubt, one of the best watered and timbered counties in the State. There is sufficient water-power to be found on the streams to propel a vast amount of machinery. The streams are rapid, and hence great inducement is extended to the capitalist and machinist; and we hope, before many years, to see the locomotive traversing our valleys to take the lumber from our mills (to the counties almost timberless, in other parts of the State) which scores of saws have made. The county is divided by heavy ridges of land extending along the streams. These are covered with excellent timber, and are believed to be our best lands for the production of small grain, as the valleys have generally yielded the best corn, potatoes, etc. As far as proper experiments in the culture of all kinds of crops suited to this climate have been made, the soil has yielded immensely. It is a sandy loam, and consequently the seed expands into the plant with great rapidity. Fruit trees grow well, and the peach in particular, which gives great hope that the soil and situation of the county are suited to make it vigorous and productive."

    The following sonnet to the Pine river appeared in the second issue of the Observer. It was written by Jane Hamilton, afterwards Mrs. John S Wilson:

Sonnet to Pine River.

        Thou gently rolling stream,
	  Round which trees and shrubs combine,
        How pleasantly the sun's bright beam
	  Upon thy waters shine.
        Ah, how I love to gaze
	  Upon thy waves so bright,
        And listen to thy murmurings
	  With pleasure and delight,
        And as the sun is setting
	   Behind the western hill,
        Thy course keeps onward moving,
	   So gentle and so still; 
         That one might almost wish to stay,
	   To guide thee on thy happy way.

    Israel Sanderson continued the publication of the Observer until 1858, when he was succeeded as editor and proprietor by J Walworth. Mr. Sanderson removed to Platteville, Grant Co., Wis., where he established the Grant County Witness. He remained connected with that paper a year or two, when he drifted into southern Illinois, where he still resides. Mr. Sanderson was a man of ability, and a clear and forcible writer.

    J Walworth remained in charge of the paper until about 1864, when J H Waggoner became editor and proprietor. During 1864 and a portion of 1865 Mr. Waggoner was alone; after which, for a time, was associated with his brother, William J Waggoner. He then again conducted the paper along until in July, 1866, when he sold the office and good will of the paper to the firm of Walworth, Fogo & Hoskins --- en personnel, J Walworth, W M Fogo and J M Hoskins. This firm at once took charge of the paper and got out the issue dated July 5, 1866, enlarging it to an eight column folio, and otherwise much improving it. In speaking of their reasons for enlarging, the editor, Mr. Walworth, says: "The paper has so steadily grown in popular favor that it has by force of necessity become necessary to enlarge it to its present fair proportions. Friends have flocked to its support in such numbers that limits more confined than those to-day presented would not contain their favors. The Observer is the largest county paper published anywhere in western Wisconsin, between Madison and the Mississippi river."

    On July 26, 1866, J M Hoskins retired form the partnership, and the firm became Walworth & Fogo. Mr. Hoskins was a bright and talented young man. He is now (1884) engaged in the banking business, and is postmaster at Sioux Rapids, Iowa.

    Messrs. Walworth & Fogo continued the publication of the Observer until Aug. 1, 1867. During this time journalistic heat in Richland county reached its maximum. An opposition paper called the Live Republican had been started by Ira S Haseltine and J H Waggoner, and the sharp thrusts, and sarcastic articles which were passed, and the bitterness which existed between these two papers gained them a State reputation.

    On Aug. 1, 1867, Walworth & Fogo sold the Observer to Messrs. C H Smith and G L Laws. The latter firm then bought up the Live Republican, the opposition sheet, and consolidated the two under the name of the

Richland County Republican,

    discontinuing the publication of both the old papers.

    Smith & Laws continued the publication of the "consolidated papers" for sometime, and were finally succeeded by James H Waggoner and George D Stevens, as Waggoner & Stevens. This firm remained editors and proprietors until 1870, when Mr. Stevens retired from the firm, leaving Mr. Waggoner sole editor and proprietor.

    James H Waggoner continued the publication of the Republican alone until in December, 1873, when W M Fogo purchased a half interest in the paper and the firm became Waggoner & Fogo. In September, 1874, G L Laws purchased J H Waggoner's interest, and the firm became Fogo & Laws.

    Fogo & Laws conducted the paper until April 1, 1876, when O G Munson purchased G L Laws' interest in the same, and the partnership then formed, as Fogo & Munson, still continues. In January, 1881, Fogo & Munson purchased the material and good will of the Observer and consolidated it with the Republican changing the name to the

Republican and Observer,

    under which title the paper is still published. The office of the Republican and Observer is equipped with a Potter cylinder press, with a capacity of taking 1000 impressions per hour, run by steam, and two job presses. It occupies the first floor of a fine two-story brick building seventy-four feet deep, which was erected by W M Fogo, in 1883.

    The Republican and Observer, through all its changes of management, has occupied a high position in journalistic circles of the State and has been recognized as a prominent and influential newspaper, not simply as a local or provincial journal. It has always taken and maintained a leading position in the discussion of State and National affairs and all the current topics of the day. Under the enterprising management of its present proprietors it has attained a large circulation, wields a powerful influence and has extended and advanced its former State wide reputation. As a county paper, it is one of the ablest in the State, and is the just pride of the people of Richland county, who accord it a liberal support, and claim it as one of the permanent institutions of the county.

    W M Fogo, senior editor of the Republican and Observer, is a son of John and Jane (Dreghorn) Fogo, and was born in Columbiana Co., Ohio, on the 18th day of June, 1841. He came with the family to Wisconsin in 1853, where he worked upon a farm until 1859, when he commenced work as apprentice in the office of the Richland County Democrat, of which W P Furey was at that time editor. He received as liberal an education as the common schools of his native State, and the then new Richland county afforded. On the 12th day of December, 1861, he enlisted in company F, 2d Wisconsin Cavalry, and served one year, when he was discharged on account of sickness. Regaining his health, again in August, 1864, he re-enlisted and was made Sergeant Major of the 42d Wisconsin Volunteer Infantry, and served with that rank until the regiment was mustered out at the close of the war. Returning to Richland Center he resumed newspaper work as one of the proprietors of the Richland County Observer. One year later he removed to Calumet county and established the Calumet Reflector, which he published one year. He then went to Iowa and soon afterward purchased an interest in the Howard County Times. In 1873 he returned to Richland Center, and has since been one of the proprietors of the Richland County Republican.

    Mr. Fogo is an able editor; as a writer he is pungent and to the point, wasting no time trying to display what he can do, and under the management of himself and Mr. Munson, the Republican and Observer has become one of the leading county papers of the State. In addition to the foregoing, Mr. Fogo has served as bookkeeper and assistant clerk in the Wisconsin Assembly, and for a number of years has been secretary of the Richland County Agricultural Society, and is now Secretary of the Old Settlers' Association of Richland county. He is a Royal Arch Mason and highly esteemed and respected as a citizen. In 1866 he was united in marriage with Amelia St. John. They have two children --- Emma C and Stephen W.

The Live Republican.

    This newspaper sprung into existance in 1866, as a result of disaffection and dissention in local politics. Ira S Haseltine and James H Waggoner were the founders. The first issue made its appearance in December, and was a seven column folio. As the sixteen years that have passed since these facts transpired, have so healed all differences that it is now considered as a joke, it will be interesting to notice some of the inside press history of that day.

    From the cradle of the Live Republican, until it dropped from existence, there was the most bitter feeling and enmity between it and the Observer. It seems that in the fall of 1866, Ira S Haseltine was nominated for member of the General Assembly by the Republicans, after a hard fight and a bitter opposition. Some of the Republicans were very much dissatisfied with the nomination. In commenting upon the result of the convention, the Observer presented an article which was really the cause of the Live Republican's establishment. In the course of the article the Observer remarked --- referring to Mr. Haseltine --- that it was "better to submit to an unwelcome necessity, than to sacrifice a single vote on national issues." This made Haseltine very wrathy, and he accordingly established the Live Republican, in partnership with J H Waggoner, in December, 1866, as has been stated.

    As a sample of the respects which were passed between the two papers, "in an editorial way," an extract is presented which appeared in December, 1866. It is unnecessary to state in which paper this particular extract was published; for in those days the papers contained as bad and even worse articles every few weeks. The one editor, referring to the other, says:

    "The young fledgling over the way, with a grand flourish of its brazen trumpet, publishes the above garbled extract from the * * * which as a sweet morsel it rolls under its forked, glazy, slimy, copperhead tongue! You long-haired, long-eared, foul-mouthed, swarthy faced, whining, niggardly mule; you old stench of putrid rottenness, plagues and boils, why don't you publish the article in full and not garble it to suit your own contemptible purposes? It didn't look well, did it? ! ! ---* *---!"

    The live Republican continued in existence until Aug. 1, 1867, when it was sold to C H Smith and G L Laws, who also purchased the Observer at the same time. These two papers were consolidated under the name of Richland County Republican. A history of the latter paper has already been given.

The Observer.

    In 1876 J H Waggoner established the second Observer. The first issue of this paper made its appearance on the 21st of December, 1876, as a six column quarto. It was very neatly gotten up and well edited, J W Waggoner being one of the finest writers the county has had. In presenting his paper to the public Mr. Waggoner, under the customary head of salutatory, said:

    "With charity for all and malice toward none, as God gives us to see the right, the Observer greets every person to whom it may come. The paramount condition of existence is daily labor. Scarcely less imperative is the decree that mind and body be harmoniously employed to crown that life with happiness. The training of the boy will in most cases determine the pursuit in which the man is to reap his measure of contentment and success. January 14, 1856, I was installed as printer's devil in the office of the Richland County Observer, then a six column folio of a few weeks' existence; and n 1864 and 1865 I was its editor and proprietor. During more than one half of the twenty-one busy and eventful years that have been marked on the dial of time since the advent of the Observer, I have been identified with the struggles and prosperity of the local newspaper. The experiences of these years have decided my labor."

    In regard to the politics of the new paper Mr. Waggoner said:

    "The Observer will be republican. I accept the progressive, liberal and humane policies of the Republican party as the fundamental ideas under which the republic is to be prospered and perpetuated. But this faith does not carry with it the blind sanction of every measure, nor the reckless endorsement of every man labelled 'republican.' "

    James H Waggoner remained connected with the Observer as long as it was continued, being associated at different times with C E and C J Glasier, as publishers, and with N B Burch upon the editorial staff.

    In January, 1881, Fogo & Munson, the proprietors of the Richland County Republican, purchased the material and good will of the Observer and consolidated it with their paper, the Republican, changing the name to the Republican and Observer, as has been stated.

Satt's Pine River Pilot.

    This was the odd title of a newspaper established at Richland Center in the fall of 1880, by M F Satterlee. It was a small paper, but sharp, and rather aggressive in its policy. The publication of the paper was continued until the spring of 1881, when it ceased to exist. Mr. Satterlee had been brought up in the county, his father having lived here for many years. After the Pilot ceased publication, the young man left the county. Satterlee is now at Neillsville, Clark county, where he is publishing a paper under the still odder name of The Owl.

The Richland Democrat.

    This paper was established at Richland Center by Otis H Brand in 1880. The first issue made its appearance on the 13th of August. It was an eight column folio, and was neatly printed and well edited. Mr. Brand was induced to come here by the Democrats of this vicinity, who deemed a paper of their creed necessary. He continued the publication of the paper until during the succeeding winter of 1880-1, when he was closed out by the sheriff, with a mortgage which he had been given upon his office. After being closed out, as soon as he could settle his business affairs, Mr. Brand moved to Janesville, where he now occupies a responsible position upon the staff of the Daily Recorder.

    The office of the Richland Democrat was sold by the sheriff, in January, 1881, and the material and office fixtures were bid in by Jerry A Smith. The material was again put in shape and a paper was started, which has finally become

The Richland Rustic.

    Jerry A Smith got out his first issue Feb. 5, 1881, retaining the name of Richland Democrat. The name was afterward changed to The Democrat and Farmer, and finally in June, 1881, to the Richland Rustic, which name it still retains.

    The Rustic was run as an eight column folio for a long time, and during the winter of 1883-4 was enlarged to an eight column quarto. The subscription price of the paper is only seventy-five cents per year, making it, as Mr. Smith can claim, the largest paper on earth for the price. It has a large circulation.

    Jerry A Smith, who is still the editor and proprietor of the Rustic, was born at Janesville, Wis., in 1858. his parents, M C and Bianca (Allen) Smith, still are residents of Janesville, where his father is among the most wealthy and prominent merchants and citizens. Jerry A.'s home remained at Janesville, save several years spent in travel, until 1880, when he came to Richland Center. He received a liberal business and general education, and this, having been supplemented by a wide business experience, it is unnecessary to say that he has made the Rustic a success in every way, and is abundantly able to continue the standard the paper has reached.

The Richland County Democrat.

    This was the first democratic paper started in the county. It was established by William P Furey in 1859, and was a neatly printed seven column folio. The paper continued in existence for about one year, when it died for want of patronage. The material was then purchased by J Walworth, and added to the office of the Observer.

    William P Furey was originally from Bellefonte, Penn., and was a printer by trade. He came west in 1858 and worked for a short time in a newspaper office at Darlington, Wis. During the winter of 1858-9 he went to Warren, Ill., and worked for a few months in what is now the Sentinel office. After which he came to Richland Center and established the Richland County Democrat. After remaining a number of years in the west, he went back to Pennsylvania and engaged in the publishing business at Altoona. In 1880 his health began to fail, being attacked by that dread disease consumption. In January, 1881, accompanied by his wife he went to San Antonio, Texas, hoping to benefit his health, but had hardly reached the place before he died. He was a man of a great deal of both natural and acquired ability, and a very able and brilliant writer, and speaker.

The Zouave.

    This was the title of a paper established at Richland Center about 1863, by E M Gregory & Co. It was a six column folio, devoted to the interest of soldiers and literary matter, more than to local and general news. The editor was Mrs. Bloomer, whose literary nom de plume was "Lisle Lester." The publication of the paper was continued only for a few months.

    Mrs. Bloomer, left the county upon the discontinuance of the publication of the paper, and finally drifted out to California, where she still lives, having married a prominent lawyer in San Francisco. She was an active and intelligent business woman, and a tasty and pungent writer. Mr. Gregory left Richland county at the same time and went to the northern part of the State. His whereabouts are now unknown.

The Sentinel.

    This paper was established at Richland Center in the fall of 1867, by J Walworth. Shortly after selling his interest in the Richland County Observer, and the discontinuance of that paper, Mr. Walworth went to Fond du Lac and purchased the material with which he founded the Sentinel. The new paper was an eight column folio, and was well gotten up. Mr. Walworth continued the publication of the Sentinel for three years, building up a lucrative business. He then rented the office to E Pickard, who managed the paper for some time and then its publication was discontinued.

The Independent.

    This paper was started by J Walworth, in the spring of 1872, using the press and material formerly in the Sentinel office. The first issue of the Independent was dated March 15, 1872. It was a seven column folio with patent insides. J Walworth was editor and M F Satterlee and Frank Johnson, publishers. Mr. Johnson was local editor. The terms of subscription for the new paper fixed $1.50 per year, if not paid in advance; $1.25 per year when paid in advance.

    The following extract from the salutatory, which Mr. Walworth presented in his first issue of the Sentinel, contains the outlined policy of the paper:

    "Honestly dissenting from the practical policy of the present (Grant's) administration, we take our humble position with the many thousands of as good, intelligent and patriotic Republicans as ever held an office, or cast a vote for Gen. Grant, who are now in favor of a reform of the government, a change in its policy, economy in its expenses and honesty in its officials, and are ready, all over the country to fall into line and labor arduously for the good of the whole country, instead of a mere party."

    Mr. Walworth continued the publication of the paper for several years, the Sentinel becoming an influential and prominent organ. He finally gave Chas. B Walworth a one-half interest in the office and the material and fixtures were moved to Boscobel and used in the establishment of the Dial, at that place.

The Richland Union Democrat.

    This newspaper was established at Richland Center in January, 1884, by Flickner & Cook. The first issue made its appearance Jan. 4, 1884, as a six column quarto, being neatly printed and well filled with local and general news. The name of Levi H Cook appears as editor and P. Flickner as publisher. In presenting their paper to the public, addressing the "citizens of Richland Center and the county at large," the editor says:

    "We present you this day with the first issue of the Richland Union Democrat, a forty-eight column newspaper, which we propose to publish hereafter every Friday afternoon.

    "In presenting this paper to the public, we will say: it will be the endeavor of the Democrat to keep its readers posted on all points of general interest of the day; also, to advocate such measures as may tend to the advancement and upbuilding of the place, and to promote the welfare and prosperity of its citizens and the county at large.

    "Politically the Democrat will be what its mast head indicates --- a straight-out-and-out democratic journal --- an exponent of pure democracy. Believing the best interests of the country demand a change in the political management of the governmental ship, it will labor to obtain this end, and defend the party and its rights with all the ability it possesses; yet while it so labors, it desires the existence of friendship's bonds and the unity of peace.

    "Its local department will contain a variety of news from the surrounding townships, as well as items of home interest.

    "For the benefit of our farming patrons we will publish a complete market report which will be corrected weekly before going to press. In a word, no pains will be spared to make the Democrat a first-class local paper. Our advertising columns are open to all, we reserving the right to reject what we may consider 'objectional matter.'

    "In conclusion we will say we have come to stay, and with this understanding shall expect all who are interested in the enterprise to come to the front at once and subscribe, especially all true democrats who have the cause at heart and wish to see that party once more in the ascendency. We need a change, the people demand it, and are bound to have it if all will do their duty. We expect to do ours, but in these days of improvement the old 'one horse power' is all out of use, and nothing but a united effort, a 'long pull, a strong pull and a pull altogether,' is going to accomplish the end in view.

    "Again we say, we are here to stay, our outfit is our own, is paid for, and with the aid and support that we shall naturally expect, will endeavor to keep the same from under the sheriff's hammer.

    "We shall aim to place our paper on a high moral basis, and in so doing it will not be unlikely that occasionally we may publish that which may appear to some objectionable, while to others it would be just the right thing in the right place. Being honest in our convictions, whatever we do will be done with an eye single to the best interests of the party in the soon coming campaign.

    "In matters of difference of opinion as regards party polity, we generously and courteously grant that privilege, and shall expect the same with the same generosity and forbearance.

    "With the encouragement already manifested we ought to swell our list to 800 or 1000 by the first of April."

    At the masthead appears the significant sentence: "Bring again to the field the daring alacrity of Jackson." The Union Democrat has a well equipped office; having a Prouty power press with a capacity of taking 800 impressions an hour; excellent job presses and latest styles of type. The Union Democrat starts out under able management and with very flattering prospects for the future.

    Peter Flickner, senior member of the firm of Flickner & Cook, was born in New Jersey, in 1819. His parents, Jacob and Hannah (Young) Flickner, were of German descent. His father, in early life, was a weaver, but in later days followed farming. Peter Flickner remained in New Jersey until about thirty-one years of age, when he came to Wisconsin in what is now Walworth county. There he went into the wagon-making business, remaining for two years, after which he returned to New Jersey, and spent a couple of years there. While on his return west, on April 5, 1855, he was married to Mary Young, at Xenia, Ohio. Upon his re-arrival in Wisconsin he settled at Delton, Sauk county, and again engaged in the manufacture of wagons. Delton has remained his home most of the time since. Mr. Flickner is an educated man, affable and pleasant, and possesses the elements to make him popular among all with whom he comes in contact.

    Levi H Cook, junior member of the firm of Flickner & Cook, and editor of the Union Democrat, was born near Oconomowoc, Wis., on the 6th of July, 1849. His parents were Martin S and Mary E (Remington) Cook; his father being a carpenter and mechanic by trade. When Levi H was three years of age his parents removed to Iowa and settled at Volga City. There they remained until 1861, when they returned to Wisconsin and located at Horicon, Dodge county. The father there enlisted in company C, 29th regiment, Wisconsin Infantry, and went into the service as sergeant. The family remained at Horicon until the father's return in 1865. At this time the mother died, and Levi H left home, going to Leroy, Wis., where for three years he was engaged at doing chores and attending school. After that time he went to Fond du Lac City, where he was engaged in the paper mills, and remained until twenty-two years of age. While there he was married to Sarah M Hubbard, of Oakfield, Wis. After leaving Fond du Lac, he was engaged in the ministry for the Advent Christian Church. In 1880 he located at Delton, Sauk county, and followed his profession until 1882, when he established the Mirror Lake Echo, a newspaper at that place, and conducted that paper for one year. In January, 1884, in company with Mr. Flickner, he established the Union Democrat, as stated, and is now a settled resident of Richland Center. Mr. and Mrs. Cook are the parents of three children --- Morton R, Fred L and Alva W.

Lone Rock Pilot

    A paper of this name was established at Lone Rock, in the year 1875 by M F Satterlee, being printed in the office of the Richland County Republican, and circulated at Lone Rock. Its publication was continued about one year.

    With the exception of the Pilot, all the papers that have ever been published in the county, were published at Richland Center.

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