Chapter III.


Wisconsin as a State.

    The State of Wisconsin is bounded on the north by Minnesota and Michigan; on the east by the State last mentioned; on the south, by Illinois, Iowa and Minnesota; and on the west, by the two last named States. Its boundaries, as more particularly described, are as follows: Beginning at its northeast corner of the State of Illinois, that is to say, at a point in the center of Lake Michigan, where the line of forty-two degrees and thirty minutes of north latitude, crosses the same; thence running with the boundary line of the State of Michigan, through Lake Michigan [and] Green bay to the mouth of the Menomonee river; thence up the channel of the said river to the Brule river; thence up said last mentioned river to Lake Brule; thence along the southern shore of Lake Brule, in a direct line to the center of the channel between Middle and South islands, in the Lake of the Desert; thence in a direct line to the head waters of the Montreal river, as marked upon the survey made by Captain Cram; thence down the main channel of the Montreal river to the middle of Lake Superior; thence through the center of Lake Superior to the mouth of the St. Louis river; thence up the main channel of said river to the first rapids in the same, above the Indian village, according to Nicollett's map, thence, due south to the main branch of the River St. Croix; thence down the main channel of said river to the Mississippi; thence down the center of the main channel of that river to the northwest corner of the State of Illinois; thence due east with the northern boundary of the State of Illinois to the place of beginning. The general shape of Wisconsin is that of an irregular pentagon. Its land area is 53,924 square miles; and, in respect to size, it ranks with the other States as the 15th. It is known as one of the North Central States, east of the Mississippi. It extends from 9 degrees 50 minutes to 15 degrees 50 minutes west longitude from Washington city, and from 42 degrees 30 minutes to about 47 degrees 30 minutes north latitude. It has Lake Michigan on the east, Green bay, Menomonee and Brule rivers, Lake Vieux Desert, the Montreal river, Lake Superior and the St. Louis river; on the northeast and north; and, on the west, the St. Croix and the Mississippi rivers.1 The average length of the State is about 260 miles; its average breadth 215 miles. The surface features of Wisconsin present a configuration between the mountainous, on the one hand, and a monotonous level, on the other. The State occupies a swell of land lying between three notable depressions: Lake Michigan, on the east; Lake Superior, on the north; and the valley of the Mississippi, on the west. From these depressions the surface slopes upward to the summit altitudes. Scattered over the State are prominent hills, but no mountains. Some of these hills swell upward into rounded domes, some ascend precipitously into castellated towers; and some reach prominence without regard to beauty or form or convenience of description. The highest peak, in the southwestern part of the State, is the West Blue Mound, 1,151 feet above Lake Michigan; in the eastern part, Lapham's Peak, 824 feet; in the central part, Rib Hill, 1,263 feet; while the crest of the Penokee Range, in the northern part, rises upward of 1,000 feet. The drainage systems correspond, in general, to the topographical features before described. The face of the State is the growth of geologic ages furrowed by the teardrops of the skies.

    The constitution of Wisconsin provided for the election of a governor, lieutenant governor, secretary of State, treasurer and attorney general, as the officers of State. The first State election was held May 8, 1848, when, not only State officers were chosen, but members of the Legislature and members of Congress. The following are the names of the governors elected and the terms they have served, since Wisconsin became a State: Nelson Dewey, June 7, 1848 to Jan. 5, 1852; Leonard J. Farwell, Jan. 5, 1852, to Jan. 5, 1854; William A. Barstow, Jan. 2, 1854, to March 21, 1856; Arthur McArthur, 2 March 21, to March 25, 1856; Coles Bashford, March 25, 1856, to Jan. 4, 1858; Alexander W. Randall, Jan. 4, 1858, to Jan. 6, 1862; Louis P. Harvey, Jan. 6, 1862, to April 19, 1862; Edward Solomon,3 April 19, 1862, to Jan. 4, 1864; James T. Lewis, Jan. 4, 1864, to Jan. 1, 1866; Lucius Fairchild, Jan. 1, 1866, to Jan. 1, 1872; C. C. Washburn, Jan. 1, 1872, to Jan. 5, 1874; William R. Taylor, Jan. 5, 1874, to Jan. 3, 1876; Harrison Ludington, Jan. 3, 1876, to Jan. 7, 1878; William E. Smith, Jan. 7, 1878 to Jan. 2, 1882, Jeremiah M. Rusk, Jan. 2, 1882, and still in office.

    The gubernatorial vote of Wisconsin since its admission into the Union was as follows:

Dewey, democrat19,538
Tweedy, whig14, 449
    Dewey's majority5,089
Dewey, democrat16,649
Collins, whig11,317
    Dewey's majority5,332
Farwell, whig22,319
Upham, democrat21,812
    Farwell's majority507
Barstow, democrat30,405
Holton, republican21,886
Baird, whig3,334
    Barstow's plurality8,519
Barstow, democrat36,355
Bashford, republican36,198
    Barstow's majority1574
Randall, republican44,693
Cross, democrat44,239
    Randall's majority454
Randall, republican59,999
Hobart, democrat52,539
    Randall's majority7,460
Harvey, republican53,777
Ferguson, democrat45,456
    Harvey's majority8,321
Lewis, republican72,717
Palmer, democrat49,053
    Lewis' majority23,664
Fairchild, republican58,332
Hobart, democrat48,330
    Fairchild's majority10,002
Fairchild, republican73,637
Tallmadge, democrat68,873
    Fairchild's majority4,764
Fairchild, republican69,502
Robinson, democrat61,239
    Fairchilds' majority8,263
Washburn, republican78,301
Doolittle, democrat68,910
    Washburn's majority9,391
Taylor, democrat81,599
Washburn, republican66,224
    Taylor's majority15,375
Ludington, republican85,155
Taylor, democrat84,314
    Ludington's majority841
Smith, republican78,759
Mallory, democrat70,486
Allis, greenback26,216
    Smith's majority8,273
Smith, republican100,585
Jenkins, democrat75,080
May, greenback12,096
Smith's majority over both12,509
Rusk, republican81,754
Fratt, democrat69,797
Kanouse, prohibition13,225
Allis, greenback7,002
    Rusk's plurality11,957

    The following are the names of the lieutenant governors and their terms of service, since Wisconsin became a State: John E. Holmes, June 7, 1848, to Jan. 7, 1850; Samuel W. Beall, Jan. 7, 1850, to Jan. 5, 1852; Timothy Burns, Jan. 5, 1852, to Jan. 2, 1854; James T. Lewis, Jan. 2, 1854, to Jan. 7, 1856; Arthur McArthur, Jan. 7, 1856, to Jan. 4, 1858; E. D. Campbell, Jan. 4, 1858, to Jan. 2, 1860; Butler G. Noble, Jan. 2, 1860 to Jan. 6, 1862; Edward Solomon, Jan. 6, 1862, to April 19, 1862; Gerry W. Hazelton, (ex-officio), Sept. 10, 1862, to Sept. 26, 1862; Wyman Spooner, Jan. 14, 1863, to Jan. 3, 1870; Thaddeus C. Pound, Jan. 3, 1870, to Jan. 1, 1872; Milton H. Pettit, Jan. 1, 1872, to March 23, 1873; Charles D. Parker, Jan. 5, 1874, to Jan. 7, 1878; James M. Bingham, Jan. 7, 1878, to Jan. 2, 1882; Samuel S. Fifield, Jan. 2, 1882, and still in office.

    The following are the persons that have been elected secretaries of State, with their terms of office, since the State was admitted into the Union:

    Thomas McHugh, June 7, 1848, to Jan. 7, 1850; William A. Barstow, Jan. 7, 1850, to Jan. 5, 1852; C. D. Robinson, Jan. 5, 1852, to Jan. 2, 1854; Alexander T. Gray, Jan. 2, 1854, to Jan. 7, 1856; David W. Jones, Jan. 7, 1856, to Jan. 2, 1860; Louis P. Harvey, Jan. 2, 1860, to Jan. 6, 1862; James T. Lewis, Jan. 6, 1862, to Jan. 4, 1864; Lucius Fairchild, Jan. 4, 1864, to Jan. 1, 1866; Thomas S. Allen, Jan. 1, 1866, to Jan. 3, 1870; Llywelyn Breese, Jan. 3, 1870, to Jan. 5, 1874; Peter Doyle, Jan. 5, 1874, to January 7, 1878; Ham B. Warner, Jan. 7, 1878, to Jan. 2, 1882; Ernest G. Timme, Jan. 2, 1882 and still in office.

    The treasurers, with their terms of office, have been as follows:

    Jairus C. Fairchild, June 7, 1848, to Jan. 5, 1852; Edward H. Janssen, Jan. 5, 1852, to Jan. 7, 1856; Charles Kuehn, Jan. 7, 1856, to Jan. 4, 1858; Samuel D. Hastings, Jan. 4, 1858, to Jan. 1, 1866; William E. Smith, Jan. 1, 1866, to Jan. 3, 1870; Henry Baetz, Jan. 3, 1870 to Jan. 5, 1874; Ferdinand Kuehn, Jan. 5, 1874, to Jan. 7, 1878; Richard Guenther, Jan. 7, 1878, to Jan. 2, 1882; Edward C. McFetridge, Jan. 2, 1882 and still in office.

    Attorneys-General, with their terms of office, have been elected as follows:

    James S. Brown, June 7, 1848, to Jan. 7, 1850; S. Park Coon, Jan. 7, 1850, to Jan. 5, 1852; Experience Estabrook, Jan. 5, 1852, to Jan. 2, 1854; George B. Smith, Jan. 2, 1854, to Jan. 7, 1856; William R. Smith, Jan. 7, 1856, to Jan. 4, 1858; Gabriel Bouck, Jan. 4, 1858 to Jan. 2, 1860; James H. Howe, Jan. 2, 1860, to Oct. 7, 1862; Winfield Smith, Oct. 7, 1862, to Jan. 1, 1866; Charles R. Gill, Jan. 2, 1866 to Jan. 3, 1870; Stephen S. Barlow, Jan. 3, 1870, to Jan. 5, 1874; A. Scott Sloan, Jan. 5, 1874, to Jan. 7, 1878; Alexander Wilson, Jan. 7, 1878, to Jan. 2, 1882; Leander F. Brisby, Jan. 2, 1882, and still in office.

    The constitution divided the State into nineteen senatorial and sixty-six assembly districts. In each of these districts, on the 8th of May, 1848, one member was elected.

    The first Legislature of the State began its session at Madison, the capital, where all subsequent ones have convened. The commencement and ending of each session, with the names of the speakers, were as follows.

    Ninean E. Whiteside, June 5, 1848, to August 21.
    Harrison C. Hobart, Jan. 10, 1849, to April 2.
    Moses M. Strong, Jan. 9, 1850, to February 11.
    Frederick W. Horn, Jan. 8, 1851, to March 17.
    James M. Shafer, Jan. 14, 1852, to April 19.
    Henry L. Palmer, Jan. 12, 1853, to April 4.
    Henry L. Palmer, June 6, 1853, to July 13.
    Frederick W. Horn, Jan. 11, 1854, to April 3.
    Charles C. Sholes, Jan. 10, 1855, to April 2.
    William Hull, Jan. 9, 1856, to March 31.
    William Hull, Sept. 3, 1856, to October 14.
    Wyman Spooner, Jan. 14, 1857, to March 9.
    Frederick S. Lovell, Jan. 13, 1858, to May 17.
    William P. Lyon, Jan. 12, 1859, to March 21.
    William P. Lyon, Jan. 11, 1860, to April 2.
    Amasa Cobb, Jan. 9, 1861, to April 17.
    Amasa Cobb, May 15, 1861, to May 27.
    James W. Beardsley, Jan. 8, 1862, to April 7.
    James W. Beardsley, June 3, 1862, to June 17.
    James W. Beardsley, Sept. 10, 1862, to Sept. 26.
    J. Allen Barker, Jan. 14, 1863, to April 2.
    William W. Field, Jan. 13, 1864, to April 4.
    William W. Field, Jan. 11, 1865, to April 10.
    Henry D. Barron, Jan. 10, 1866, to April 12.
    Angus Cameron, Jan. 9, 1867, to April 11.
    Alexander M. Thomson, Jan. 8, 1868, to March 6.
    Alexander M. Thomson, Jan. 13, 1869, to March 11.
    James M. Bingham, Jan. 12, 1870, to March 17.
    William E. Smith, Jan. 11, 1871, to March 25.
    Daniel Hall, Jan. 10, 1872, to March 26.
    Henry D. Barron, Jan. 8, 1873, to March 20.
    Gabe Bouck, Jan. 14, 1874, to March 12.
    Frederick W. Horn, Jan. 13, 1875, to March 6.
    Samuel S. Fifield, Jan. 12, 1876, to March 14.
    John B. Cassoday, Jan. 10, 1877, to March 8.
    Augustus R. Barrows, Jan. 9, 1878, to March 21.
    Augustus R. Barrows, June 4, 1878, to June 7.
    David M. Kelley, Jan. 8, 1879, to March 5.
    Alexander A. Arnold, Jan. 14, 1880, to March 17.
    Ira D. Bradford, Jan. 12, 1881, to April 4.
    Franklin L. Gilson, Jan. 11, 1882, to March 31.
    Earl P. Finch, Jan. 10, 1883, to April 4.

    The constitution divided the State into two congressional districts, in each of which one member of Congress was elected May 8, 1848. The first district embraced the counties of Milwaukee, Waukesha, Jefferson, Racine, Walworth, Rock and Green; the second district was composed of the counties of Washington, Sheboygan, Manitowoc, Calumet, Brown, Winnebago, Fond du Lac, Marquette, Sauk, Portage, Columbia, Dodge, Dane, Iowa, Lafayette, Grant, Richland, Crawford, Chippewa, St. Croix and La Pointe --- the counties of Richland, Chippewa and La Pointe being unorganized. (It may here be stated that the first Legislature changed the apportionment, making three districts; other apportionments have been made at each decade, so that there are now nine congressional districts.) The first members were elected to the XXXth Congress, which expired March 4, 1849. The members elected from Wisconsin to that and subsequent Congresses are:

XXXth Congress, 1847-9.
First District. --- William Pitt Lynde.5
Second District. --- Mason C. Darling.5

XXXIst Congress, 1849-51.
First District. --- Charles Durkee.
Second District. --- Orsamus Cole.
Third District. --- James Duane Doty.

XXXIId Congress, 1851-53.
First District. --- Charles Durkee.
Second District. --- Ben. C. Eastman.
Third District. --- John B. Macy.

XXXIIId Congress, 1853-55.
First District. --- Daniel Wells, Jr.
Second District. --- Ben C. Eastman.
Third District. --- John B. Macy.

XXXIVth Congress, 1855-57.
First District. --- Daniel Wells, Jr.
Second District. --- C. C. Washburn.
Third District. --- Charles Billinghurst.

XXXVth Congress, 1857-59.
First District. --- John F. Potter.
Second District. --- C. C. Washburn.
Third District. --- Charles Billinghurst.

XXXVIth Congress, 1859-61.
First District. --- John F. Potter.
Second District. --- C. C. Washburn.
Third District. --- Charles H. Larrabee.

XXXVIIth Congress, 1861-63.
First District. --- John F. Potter.
Second District. --- Luther Hanchett,6 Walter McIndoe.
Third District. --- A. Scott Sloan.

XXXVIIIth Congress, 1863-65.
First District. --- James S. Brown.
Second District. --- Ithamar C. Sloan.
Third District. --- Amasa Cobb.
Fourth District. --- Charles A. Eldredge.
Fifth District. --- Ezra Wheeler.
Sixth District. --- Walter D. McIndoe.

XXXIXth Congress, 1865-67.
First District. --- Halbert E. Paine.
Second District. --- Ithamar C. Sloan.
Third District. --- Amasa Cobb.
Fourth District. --- Charles A. Eldredge.
Fifth District. --- Philetus Sawyer.
Sixth District. --- Walter D. McIndoe.

XLth Congress, 1867-69.
First District. --- Halbert E. Paine.
Second District. --- Benjamin F. Hopkins.
Third District. --- Amasa Cobb.
Fourth District. --- Charles A. Eldredge.
Fifth District. --- Philetus Sawyer.
Sixth District. --- Cadwallader C. Washburn.

XLIst Congress, 1869-71.
First District. --- Halbert E. Paine.
Second District. --- Benjamin F. Hopkins,7 David Atwood.
Third District. --- Amasa Cobb.
Fourth District. --- Charles A. Eldredge.
Fifth District. --- Philetus Sawyer.
Sixth District. --- Cadwallader C. Washburn.

XLIId Congress, 1871-73.
First District. --- Alexander Mitchell.
Second District. --- Gerry W. Hazelton.
Third District. --- J. Allen Barber.
Fourth District. --- Charles A. Eldredge.
Fifth District. --- Philetus Sawyer.
Sixth District. --- Jeremiah M. Rusk.

XLIIId Congress, 1873-75.
First District. --- Charles G. Williams.
Second District. --- Gerry W. Hazelton.
Third District. --- J. Allen Barber.
Fourth District. --- Alexander Mitchell.
Fifth District. --- Charles A. Eldredge.
Sixth District. --- Philetus Sawyer.
Seventh District. --- Jeremiah M. Rusk.
Eighth District. --- Alexander S. McDill.

XLIVth Congress, 1875-77.
First District. --- Charles G. Williams.
Second District. --- Lucien B. Caswell.
Third District. --- Henry S. Magoon.
Fourth District. --- William Pitt Lynde.
Fifth District. --- Samuel D. Burchard.
Sixth District. --- Alanson M. Kimball.
Seventh District. --- Jeremiah M. Rusk.
Eighth District. --- George W. Cate.

XLVth Congress, 1877-79.
First District. --- Charles G. Williams.
Second District. --- Lucien B. Caswell.
Third District. --- George C. Hazelton.
Fourth District. --- William Pitt Lynde.
Fifth District. --- Edward S. Bragg.
Sixth District. --- Gabriel Bouck.
Seventh District. --- Herman L. Humphrey.
Eighth District. --- Thaddeus C. Pound.

XLVIth Congress, 1879-81.
First District. --- Charles G. Williams.
Second District. --- Lucien B. Caswell.
Third District. --- George C. Hazelton.
Fourth District. --- Peter V. Deuster.
Fifth District. --- Edward S. Bragg.
Sixth District. --- Gabriel Bouck.
Seventh District. --- Herman L. Humphrey.
Eighth District. --- Thaddeus C. Pound.

XLVIIth Congress, 1881-83.
First District. --- Charles G. Williams.
Second District. --- Lucien B. Caswell.
Third District. --- George C. Hazelton.
Fourth District. --- Peter V. Deuster.
Fifth District. --- Edward S. Bragg.
Sixth District. --- Richard Guenther.
Seventh District. --- Herman L. Humphrey.
Eighth District. --- Thaddeus C. Pound.

XLVIIIth Congress, 1883-85.
First District. --- John Winans.
Second District. --- Daniel H. Sumner.
Third District. --- Burr W. Jones.
Fourth District. --- Peter V. Deuster.
Fifth District. --- Joseph Rankin.
Sixth District. --- Richard Guenther.
Seventh District. --- Gilbert M. Woodward.
Eighth District. --- William T. Price.
Ninth District. --- Isaac Stephenson.

    The first Legislature in joint convention, on the 7th of June 1848, canvassed, in accordance with the constitution, the votes given on the 8th of May, for the State officers, and the two representatives in Congress. On the same day the State officers were sworn into office. The next day Gov. Dewey delivered his first message to the Legislature. The first important business of the first State Legislature was the election of two United States senators; Henry Dodge and Isaac P. Walker, both democrats, were elected. The latter drew the short term; so that his office expired on the 4th day of March, 1849, at the end of the thirteenth Congress; as Dodge drew the long term, his office expired on the 4th day of March, 1851, at the end of thirty-first Congress. Both were elected, June 8, 1848. Their successors, with the date of their elections, were as follows: Isaac P. Walker, Jan. 17, 1849; Henry Dodge, Jan. 20, 1851; Charles Durkee, Feb. 1, 1855; James R. Doolittle, Jan. 23, 1857; Timothy O. Howe, Jan. 23, 1861; James R. Doolittle, Jan. 22, 1863; Timothy O. Howe, Jan. 24, 1867; Matthew H. Carpenter, Jan. 26, 1869; Timothy O. Howe, Jan. 21, 1873; Angus Cameron, Feb. 3, 1875; Matthew H. Carpenter, Jan. 22, 1879; Philetus Sawyer, Jan. 26, 1881; Angus Cameron, March 10, 1881.

    The constitution vested the judicial power of the State in a supreme court, circuit court, courts of probate, and justices of the peace, giving the Legislature power to vest such jurisdiction as should be deemed necessary in municipal courts. Judges were not to be elected at any State or county election, nor within thirty days before or after one. The State was divided into five judicial districts, Edward V. Whiton being chosen judge at the election on the first Monday in August, 1848, of the first circuit, composed of the counties of Racine, Walworth, Rock and Green as then constituted; Levi Hubbell, of the second, composed of Milwaukee, Waukesha, Jefferson and Dane; Charles H. Larrabee, of the third, composed of Washington, Dodge, Columbia, Marquette, Sauk and Portage, as then formed; Alexander W. Stow, of the fourth, composed of Brown, Manitowoc, Sheboygan, Fond du Lac, Winnebago and Calumet; and Mortimer M. Jackson, of the fifth, composed of the counties of Iowa, LaFayette, Grant, Crawford and St. Croix, as then organized; the county of Richland being attached to Iowa; the county of Chippewa to the county of Crawford; and the county of La Pointe to the county of St. Croix, for judicial purposes. In 1850, a sixth circuit was formed. By and act, which took effect in 1854, a seventh circuit was formed. On the 1st day of January, 1855, an eighth and ninth circuit was formed. In the same year was also formed a tenth circuit. An eleventh circuit was formed in 1864. By an act which took effect the 1st day of January, 1871, the twelfth circuit was formed. In 1876 a thirteenth circuit was "constituted and re-organized." At the present time John M. Wentworth is judge of the first circuit, which is composed of the counties of Walworth, Racine, and Kenosha; Charles A. Hamilton of the second, which includes Milwaukee county; David J. Pulling of the third, composed of Calumet, Green Lake and Winnebago; Norman S. Gilson of the fourth, composed of Sheboygan, Manitowoc, Kewaunee and Fond du Lac; George Clementson of the fifth, composed of Grant, Iowa, La Fayette, Richland and Crawford; Alfred W. Newman of the sixth, composed of Clark, Jackson, La Crosse, Monroe, Trempealeau and Vernon; Charles M. Webb of the seventh, composed of Portage, Marathon, Waupaca, Wood, Waushara, Lincoln, Price, and Taylor; Egbert B. Bundy of the eighth, composed of Buffalo, Dunn, Eau Claire, Pepin, Pierce, and St. Croix; Alva Stewart of the ninth, composed of Adams, Columbia, Dane, Juneau, Sauk, Marquette; George H. Myres, of the tenth, composed of Florence, Langlade, Outagamie, and Shawano; Solon C. Clough of the eleventh, composed of Ashland, Barron, Bayfield, Burnett, Chippewa, Douglas, Polk, and Washburn; John R. Bennett of the twelfth, composed of Rock, Green, and Jefferson; A. Scott Sloan, of the thirteenth, composed of Dodge, Ozaukee, Washington, and Waukesha; Samuel D. Hastings of the fourteenth, composed of Brown, Door, Mainette and Oconto.

    The first Legislature provided for the re-election of judges of the circuit courts on the first Monday of August, 1848. By the same act it was provided that the first term of the supreme court should be held in Madison, on the second Monday of January, 1849, and thereafter at the same place and on the same day, yearly; afterward changed so as to hold a January and June term in each year. Under the constitution, the circuit judges were also judges of the supreme court. One of their own number under an act of June 29, 1848, was to be, by themselves, elected chief justice. Under this arrangement, the following were the justices of the supreme court, at the times indicated: Alex. W. Stow, C. J., fourth district, Aug. 28, 1848, to Jan. 1, 1851; Edward V. Whiton, A. J., first circuit, Aug. 28, 1848, to June 1, 1853; Levi Hubbell, A. J., elected chief justice, June 18, 1851, second circuit, Aug. 28, 1848, to June 1, 1853; Charles H. Larrabee, A. J., third circuit, Aug. 28, 1848, to June 1, 1853; Mortimer M. Jackson, A. J., fifth circuit, Aug. 28, 1848, to June 1, 1853; Timothy O. Howe, A. J., fourth circuit, Jan. 1, 1851, to June 1, 1853; Wiram Knowlton, A. J., sixth circuit, organized by the Legislature in 1850, Aug. 6, 1850, to June 1, 1853. In 1853, the supreme court was separately organized, the chief justice and associate justices being voted for as such. The following persons have constituted that court during the terms indicated, since its separate organization: Edward V. Whiton, C. J., June 1, 1853, to April 12, 1859; Luther S. Dixon, C. J., April 20, 1859, to June 17, 1874; Edward G. Ryan, C. J., Jun 17, 1874, to Oct. 19, 1880; Orsamus Cole, C. J., Nov. 11, 1880, (in office); Samuel Crawford, A. J., June 1, 1853, to June 19, 1855; Abraham D. Smith, A. J., June 1, 1853, to June 21, 1859; Orsamus Cole, A. J., June 19, 1855, to Nov. 11, 1880; Byron Paine, A. J., June 21, 1859, to Nov. 15, 1864; Jason Downer, A. J., Nov. 15, 1864, to Sept. 11, 1867; Byron Paine, A. J., Sept. 11, 1867, to Jan. 13, 1871; William P. Lyon, A. J., Jan. 20, 1870, (in office); David Taylor, A. J., April 18, 1878, (in office); Harlow S. Orton, A. J., April 18, 1878, (in office); John B. Cassoday, A. J., Nov. 11, 1880, (in office).

    The act of Congress entitled "An act to enable the people of Wisconsin territory to form a constitution and State government, and for the admission of such State into the Union," approved Aug. 6, 1846, provided for one United States judicial district to be called the district of Wisconsin. It was also provided that a district court should be held therein by one judge who should reside in the district and be called a district judge. The court was to hold two terms a year in the capital, Madison. This was afterward changed so that one term only was held at the seat of the State government, while the other was to be held at Milwaukee. Special terms could be held at either of these places. On the 12th day of June, 1848, Andrew G. Miller was appointed by the President district judge. By the act of Congress of July 15, 1862, a circuit court of the United States was created to be held in Wisconsin. The district judge was given power to hold the circuit court in Wisconsin in company with the circuit judge and circuit justice, or either of them, or alone in their absence. Wisconsin now composes a portion of the seventh judicial circuit of the United States, Thomas Drummond being circuit judge. He resides at Chicago. The circuit justice is one of judges of the United States supreme court. Two terms of the circuit court are held each year at Milwaukee and one term in Madison.

    In 1870 the State was divided into two districts, the eastern and western. In the western district, one term of the United States district court each year was to be held at Madison and one at La Crosse; in the eastern district, two terms were to be held at Milwaukee and one at Oshkosh. On the 9th day of July, 1870, James C. Hopkins was appointed judge of the western district, Andrew G. Miller remaining judge of the eastern district. The latter resigned to take effect Jan. 1,1874, and James H. Howe was appointed to fill the vacancy; but Judge Howe soon resigned, and Charles E. Dyer, on the 10th of February, 1875, appointed in his place. He is still in office. Judge Hopkins, of the western district, died Sept. 4, 1877; when, on the 13th of October following, Romanzo Bunn was appointed his successor, and now fills that office.

    An act was passed by the first Legislature providing for the election and defining the duties of a State superintendent of public instruction. The persons holding that office, with the term of each, are as follows: Eleazer Root, from Jan. 1, 1849, to Jan. 5, 1852; Azel P. Ladd, from Jan. 5, 1852, to Jan. 2, 1854; Hiram A. Wright, from Jan. 5, 1854, to May 29, 1855; A. Constantine Barry, from June 26, 1855, to Jan. 4, 1858; Lyman C. Draper, from Jan. 4, 1858, to Jan. 2, 1860; Josiah L. Pickard, form Jan. 2, 1860, to Sept. 30, 1864; John G. McMynn, from Oct. 1, 1864, to Jan. 6, 1868; Alexander J. Craig, from Jan. 6, 1868, to Jan. 3, 1870; Samuel Fallows, from Jan. 6, 1870, to Jan. 4, 1874; Edward Searing, from Jan. 4, 1874, to Jan. 7, 1878; William C. Whitford, from Jan. 7, 1878, to Jan. 2, 1882; Robert Graham, from Jan. 2, 1882, (now in office.) By the same Legislature, a State University was established. The school system of Wisconsin embraces graded schools, to be found in all the cities and larger villages, the district schools, organized in the smaller villages and in the country generally, besides the University of Wisconsin, (located at Madison, the capital of the State). The university has three departments: the college of letters, the college of arts, and the college of law. It was founded upon a grant of seventy-two sections of land made by Congress to the territory of Wisconsin. That act required the secretary of the treasury to set apart and reserve from sale, out of any public lands within the territory of Wisconsin, "a quantity of land, not exceeding two entire townships, for the support of a university within the said territory and for no other use or purpose whatsoever; to be located in tracts of land not less than an entire section corresponding with any of the legal divisions into which the public lands are authorized to be surveyed." The territorial Legislature, at its session in 1838, passed a law incorporating the "University of the Territory of Wisconsin," locating the same at or near Madison. In 1841 a commissioner was appointed to select the lands donated to the State for the maintenance of the university, who performed the duty assigned to him in a most acceptable manner. Section 6 of article X of the State constitution provides that "provision shall be made by law for the establishment of a State University at or near the seat of government. The proceeds of all lands that have been or may hereafter be granted by the United States to the State, for the support of a University shall be and remain a perpetual fund, to be called the 'University fund,' the interest of which shall be appropriated to the support of the State University." Immediately upon the organization of the State government an act was passed incorporating the State University, and a board of regents appointed, who at once organized the institution.

    The University was formally opened by the public inauguration of a chancellor, Jan. 16, 1850. The preparatory department of the University was opened Feb. 5, 1849, with twenty pupils. In 1849 the regents purchased nearly 200 acres of land, comprising what is known as the "University Addition to the City of Madison," and the old "University Grounds." In 1851 the north dormitory was completed, and the first college classes formed. In 1854 the south dormitory was erected. Owing to the fact that the lands comprising the original grant had produced a fund wholly inadequate to the support of the university, in 1854 a further grant of seventy-two sections of land was made by Congress to the State for that purpose. In 1866 the University was completely re-organized, so as to meet the requirements of a law of Congress passed in 1862, providing for the endowment of agricultural colleges. That act granted to the several States a quantity of land equal to 30,000 acres for each senator and representative in Congress, by the apportionment under the census of 1860. The objects of that grant are fully set forth in sections four and five of said act. The lands received by Wisconsin under said act of Congress, and conferred upon the State University for the support of an agricultural college, amounted to 240,000 acres, making a total of 322,160 acres of land donated to this State by the general government for the endowment and support of this institution. Up to the time of its re-organization, the University had not received one dollar from the State or from any municipal corporation. In pursuance of a law passed in 1866, Dane county issued bonds to the amount of $40,000 for the purchase of about 200 acres of land contiguous to the University grounds for an experimental farm, and for the erection of suitable buildings thereon. The next winter the Legislature passed a law which appropriated annually for ten years to the income of the University Fund, $7,308.76, that being the interest upon the sum illegally taken from the fund by the law of 1862 to pay for the erection of buildings.

    In 1870 the Legislature appropriated $50,000 for the erection of a female college, which is the first contribution made outright to the upbuilding of any institution of learning in this State. In order to comply with the law granting funds lands for the support of agricultural colleges, the University was compelled to make large outlays in fitting up laboratories and purchasing the apparatus necessary for instruction and practical advancement in the arts immediately connected with the industrial interests of the State, a burden which the Legislature very generously shared by making a further annual appropriation in 1872 of $10,000 to the income of the University Fund. The increased facilities offered by improvements in the old and by the erection of a new college building proved wholly inadequate to meet the growing wants of the institution. In its report for 1874, the board of visitors said: "A hall of natural sciences is just now the one desideratum of the University. It can never do the work it ought to do, the work the State expects it to do, without some speedily increased facilities." The Legislature promptly responded to this demand, and at its next session appropriated $80,00 for the erection of a building for scientific purposes. In order to permanently provide for deficiencies in the University Fund income, and to establish the institution upon a firm and enduring foundation, the Legislature of 1876 enacted "That there shall be levied and collected for the year 1876 and annually thereafter, a State tax of one-tenth of one mill for each dollar of the assessed valuation of the taxable property of this State, and the amount so levied and collected is hereby appropriated to the University Fund income, to be used as a part thereof." This is in lieu of all other appropriations for the benefit of this fund, and all tuition fees for students in the regular classes are abolished by this act.

    The fourth section of the act of 1876, to permanently provide for deficiencies in the University Fund income, is as follows: "From and out of the receipts of said tax, the sum of $3,000 annually shall be set apart for astronomical work and for instruction in astronomy, to be expended under the direction of the regents of the University of Wisconsin, as soon as a complete and well equipped observatory shall be given the University, on its own grounds without cost to the State: Provided, that such observatory whose shall be completed within three years from the passage of this act." The astronomical observatory whose construction was provided for by this act, was erected by the wise liberality of ex-Gov. Washburn. It is a beautiful stone building, finely situated and well fitted for its work. Its length is eighty feet, its breadth forty-two feet, and its height forty-eight feet. Over the door to the rotunda is a marble tablet bearing this inscription: "Erected and furnished, A. D. 1878, by the munificence of Cadwallader C. Washburn, and by him presented to the University of Wisconsin; a tribute to general science. In recognition of this gift, this tablet is inserted by the regents of the University." The telescope has a sixteen inch object-glass. The size is a most desirable one for the great mass of astronomical work. In 1881 a students' observatory was erected and a wing was added to the east side of the Washburn observatory.

    In the fall of 1848 there was a Presidential election. There were then three organized political parties in the State --- whig, democrat and free-soil, each having a ticket in the field; but the democrats were in the majority. The successful electors for that year and for each four years since that date, were as follows:

1848.        Elected November 7.
At Large ---Francis Huebschmann.

Wm. Dunwiddie.
First District. ---David P. Maples
Second District. ---Samuel F. Nichlos.
1852.        Elected November 2.
At Large ---Montgomery M. Cothren.

Satterlee Clark.
First District. ---Philo White.
Second District. ---Beriah Brown.
Third District. ---Charles Billinghurst.
1856.        Elected November 4.
At Large ---Edward D. Holton.

James H. Knowlton.
First District. ---Gregor Mencel.
Second District. ---Walter D. McIndoe.
Third District. ---Bille Williams.
1860.        Elected November 6.
At Large ---Walter D. McIndoe.

Bradford Rixford.
First District. ---William W. Vaughn.
Second District. ---J. Allen Barber.
Third District. ---Herman Lindeman.
1864.        Elected November 8.
At Large ---William W. Field.

Henry L. Blood.
First District. ---George C. Northrop.
Second District. ---Jonathan Bowman.
Third District. ---Allen Warden.
Fourth District. ---Henry J. Turner.
Fifth District. ---Henry F. Belitz.
Sixth District. ---Alexander S. McDill.
1868.        Elected November 3.
At Large ---Stephen S. Barlow.

Henry D. Barron.
First District. ---Elihu Enos.
Second District. ---Charles G. Williams.
Third District. --- Allen Warden.
Fourth District. ---Leander F. Frisby.
Fifth District. ---William G. Ritch.
Sixth District. --- William T. Price.
1872.        Elected November 5.
At Large ---William E. Cramer.

Frederick Fleischer.
First District. ---Jerome S. Nickles.
Second District. ---George G. Swain.
Third District. ---Ormsby B. Thomas.
Fourth District. ---Frederick Hilgen.
Fifth District. ---Edward C. McFetridge.
Sixth District. ---George E. Hoskinson.
Seventh District. ---Romanzo Bunn.
Eighth District. ---Henry D. Barron.
1876.        Elected November 7.
At Large ---William H. Hiner.

Francis Campbell.
First District. ---T. D. Weeks.
Second District. ---T. D. Lang.
Third District. ---Daniel L. Downs.
Fourth District. ---Casper M. Sanger.
Fifth District. ---Charles Luling.
Sixth District. ---James H. Foster.
Seventh District. ---Charles B. Solberg.
Eighth District. ---John H. Knapp.
1880.        Elected November 2.
At Large ---George End.

Knud Langland.
First District. ---Lucius S. Blake.
Second District. ---John Kellogg.
Third District. ---George E. Weatherby.
Fourth District. ---William P. McLaren.
Fifth District. ---C. T. Lovell.
Sixth District. ---E. L. Browne.
Seventh District. ---F. H. Kribbs.
Eighth District. ---John T. Kingston.

    The popular vote cast for President at each of the Presidential elections in Wisconsin, and the electoral vote cast for each successful candidate, were as follows:

1848Zachary Taylor13,747
Lewis Cass15,0014
Martin Van Buren10,418
1852Franklin Pierce33,6585
Winfield Scott22,240
John P. Hale8,814
1856James Buchanan52,843
John C. Fremont66,0905
Millard Fillmore579
1860Abraham Lincoln86,1185
John C. Breckinridge888
John Bell161
S. A. Douglas65,021
1864Abraham Lincoln83,4588
Geo. B. McClellan65,884
1868Ulysses S. Grant108,8578
Horatio Seymour84,707
1872Ulysses S. Grant104,99710
Horace Greeley86,477
Charles O'Connor834
1876Rutherford B. Hayes130,66810
Samuel J. Tilden123,927
Peter Cooper1,509
G. C. Smith27
1880James A. Garfield144,39810
Winfield S. Hancock114,644
J. B. Weaver7,986
Neal Dow68
J. B. Phelps91

    The act of the first Legislature of the State, exempting a homestead from forced sale on any debt or liability contracted after Jan. 1, 1849, and another act exempting certain personal property, were laws the most liberal in their nature passed by any State in the Union previous to that time. Other acts were passed --- such as were deemed necessary to put the machinery of the State government in all its branches, in fair running order. And, by the second Legislature (1849) were enacted a number of laws of public utility. The statutes were revised, making a volume of over 900 pages. The year 1848 was one of general prosperity to the rapidly increasing population of the State; and that of 1849 developed in an increased ratio its productive capacity in every department of labor. The agriculturist, the artisan, the miner, reaped the well-earned reward of his honest labor. The commercial and manufacturing interests were extended in a manner highly creditable to the enterprise of the people. The educational interests of the State began to assume a more systematic organization. The tide of immigration suffered no decrease during the year. Within the limits of Wisconsin, the oppressed of other climes continued to find welcome and happy homes. There were many attractions for emigrants from the Old World, especially from northern Europe --- from Germany, Norway, Sweden and Denmark; also from Ireland and England.

    The third Legislature changed the January term of the supreme court to December and organized a sixth judicial circuit. The first charitable institution in Wisconsin, incorporated by the State, was the "Wisconsin Institute for the Education of the Blind." A school for that unfortunate class had been opened in Janesville, in the latter part of 1849, receiving its support from the citizens of that place and vicinity. By an act of the Legislature, approved Feb. 9, 1850, this school was taken under the care of the Institute, to continue and maintain it, at Janesville, and to qualify, as far as might be, the blind of the State for the enjoyment of the blessings of a free government; for obtaining the means of subsistence; and for the discharge of those duties, social and political, devolving upon American citizens. It has since been supported from the treasury of the State. On the 7th of October, 1850, it was opened for the reception of pupils, under the direction of a board of trustees appointed by the governor. The other charitable institutions of the State are the State Hospital for the Insane, located near Madison, and opened for patients in July, 1860; Northern Hospital for the Insane, located near Oshkosh, to which patients were first admitted in April, 1873, and the Institution for the Deaf and Dumb, located at Delavan, in Walworth county.

    The entire length of the building of the Wisconsin State Hospital for the Insane, situated on the north shore of Lake Mendota, in Dane county, is 569 feet, the center building being 65x120 feet. The first longitudinal wing on each side of the center is 132 feet, and the last on each extremity is 119 feet. The transverse wings are eighty-seven feet long. This commodious building is surrounded by ornamental grounds, woods and farming lands, to the extent of 393 acres, and is well adapted for the care of the unfortunate needing its protection. In 1879, additional room for 180 patients was added, by converting the old chapel into wards, and by the addition of cross wings in front of the old building. The hospital will now accommodate comfortably 550 patients. In 1870 a law was passed authorizing the erection of the building for the Northern Hospital, on a tract, consisting of 337 acres of land, about four miles north of the city of Oshkosh on the west shore of Lake Winnebago. The necessary appropriations were made, and the north wing and central building were completed. Further appropriations were made from time to time for additional wings, and in 1875 the hospital was completed according to the original design, at a total cost to the State of $625,250. The building has been constructed on the most approved plan, and is suited to accomodate 600 patients.

    The land first occupied by the Wisconsin Institution for the Deaf and Dumb, comprising 11 46-100 acres, was donated by Hon. F. K. Phoenix, one of the first trustees, but the original boundaries have since been enlarged by the purchase of twenty-two acres. The main building was burned to the ground on the 16th of September, 1879; but during the year 1880 four new buildings were erected, and with the increased facilities provided, 250 children may be well cared for. The new buildings are a school house, boys' dormitory, dining-room and chapel, with a main or administration building. These buildings are plain, neat, substantial structures, and well fitted for the uses intended. The Institution was originally a private school for the deaf, but was incorporated by act of the Legislature, April 19, 1852. It designs to educate that portion of the children and youth of the State, who, on account of deafness, cannot be edcuated in the public schools. Instruction is given by signs, by written language, and by articulation. In the primary department few books are used, slates, pencils, crayons, pictures, blocks and other illustrative apparatus being the means employed. In the intermediate department the books used are prepared especially for the deaf and dumb; more advanced pupils study text-books used in our common schools. The shoe shop commenced business in 1867; the printing office in 1878, and the bakery in 1881. The law provides that all deaf and dumb residents of the State of the age of ten years and under twenty-five, of suitable age and capacity to receive instruction, shall be received and taught free of charge for board and tuition, but parents and guardians are expected to furnish clothing and pay traveling expenses.

    The taking of the census by the United State(s), this year, 1850, showed a population for Wisconsin of 305,391 --- the astonishing increase in two years of nearly 95,000. Many, as already stated, were German, Scandinavian and Irish; but the larger proportion were, of course, from the Eastern and Middle States of the Union. The principal attractions of Wisconsin were the excellency and cheapness of its lands, its valuable mines of lead, its extensive forests of pine, and the unlimited water-power of its numerous streams. In 1860 the population had increased to 775,881; in 1870 to 1,054,670, and in 1880 to 1,315,480. By an act of the fourth Legislature of the State, approved March 14, 1851, the location and erection of a State prison for Wisconsin was provided for, Waupim, Dodge county, being afterwards the point selected for it. The office of State prison commissioner was created in 1853, but was abolished in 1874. During that time the following persons held the office: John Taylor, from March 28, 1853 to April 2, 1853; Henry Brown, from April 2, 1853 to Jan. 2, 1854; Argalus W. Starks, from Jan. 2, 1854 to Jan. 7, 1856; Edward McGarry, from Jan. 7, 1856 to Jan. 4, 1858; Edward M. MacGraw, form Jan. 4, 1858 to Jan. 2, 1860; Hans C. Heg, from Jan. 2, 1860 to Jan. 6, 1862; Alexander P. Hodges, from Jan. 6, 1862 to Jan. 4, 1864; Henry Cordier, from Jan. 4, 1864 to Jan. 3, 1870; George F. Wheeler, from Jan. 3, 1870 to Jan. 4, 1874. The State (Law) Library had its origin in the generous appropriation of $5,000 out of the general treasury, by Congress, contained in the seventeenth section of the organic act creating the territory of Wisconsin. At the first session of the territorial Legislature, held at Belmont in 1836, a joint resolution was adopted appointing a committee to select and purchase a library for the use of the territory. The first appropriation by the State, to replenish the library, was made in 1851. Since that time, several appropriations have been made. The number of volumes in the library at the beginning of 1883 was 16,285.

    The fifth Legislature --- the Assembly, whig, the Senate, democratic --- passed an act authorizing banking. This was approved by the governor, L. J. Farwell, April 19, 1852. The question of "bank or no bank" having been submitted to the people in November previous, and decided in favor of banks; the power was thereby given to the Legislature of 1852 to grant bank charters or to pass a general banking law. By the act just mentioned, the office of bank comptroller was created, but was abolished by an act of Jan. 3, 1870. During the continuance of the law, the following persons filled the office, at the time given: James S. Baker, from Nov. 20, 1852 to Jan. 2, 1854; William M. Dennis, from Jan. 2, 1854 to Jan. 4, 1858; Joel C. Squires, from Jan. 4, 1858 to Jan. 2, 1860; Gysbert Van Steenwyk, from Jan. 2, 1860 to Jan. 6, 1862; William H. Ramsey, from Jan. 6, 1862 to Jan. 1, 1866; Jeremiah M. Rusk, from Jan. 1, 1866 to Jan. 3, 1870. The sixth Wisconsin Legislature commenced its session, as we have seen, Jan. 12, 1853. On the 26th of that month charges were preferred in the Assembly against Levi Hubbell, judge of the second circuit court, for divers acts of corruption and malfeasance in office. A resolution directed a committee to go to the Senate and impeach Hubbell. On the trial he was acquitted. By an act of the same Legislature, the State Agricultural Society was incorporated. Since its organization the society has printed a number of volumes of transactions, and has held, except during the civil war, annual fairs. Its aid to the agricultural interests of the State are clearly manifest. Farming, in Wisconsin, is confined at the present time to the south half of the State, the northern half being still largely covered by forests. The surface of the agricultural portion is, for the most part, gently undulating, consisting largely of prairies alternating with "oak openings." The State is essentially a grain-growing one, though stock-raising and dairy farming are rapidly gaining in importance. Wheat, the staple product of Wisconsin, is gradually losing its prestige as the farmer's sole dependence, and mixed farming is coming to the front. About twenty bushels of wheat are raised annually to each inhabitant of the State. Much more attention is now paid to fertilizers than formerly, clover and plaster being looked upon with constantly increasing favor. While within the last ten years stock-raising has been a growing interest, yet it has not been a rapid one; not so, however, with dairying --- no other agricultural interest has kept pace with this. The principal markets for the farm products of Wisconsin are Milwaukee and Chicago.

    By and act approved March 4, 1853, the State Historical Society was incorporated, it having been previously organized. The society is under the fostering care of the State, each Legislature voting a respectable sum for its benefit. It has published a number of volumes of "Collections" and of catalogues. Its rooms are in the capitol at Madison, where are to be found its library of historical books and pamphlets, the largest in the northwest. On the 21st of September, 1853, Timothy Burns, lieutenant-governor of the State, died at La Crosse. As a testimonial of respect for the deceased, the several State departments, in accordance with a proclamation of Gov. Farwell, were closed for one day, October 3. The year 1850, to the agriculturalist, was not one of much prosperity in Wisconsin, owing to the partial failure of the wheat crop. The State was visited during the year by cholera, not, however, to a very alarming extent. In 1851 the State was prosperous. In 1852 the citizens of Wisconsin enjoyed unusual prosperity. There were abundant harvests and high markets; an increase of money and a downward tendency of the rates of interest. The next year (1853) was also one in which every branch of industry prospered. There was an especial increase in commerce and manufactures. And here it might be said that next to agriculture the most important pursuit in Wisconsin is manufacturing; foremost in this interest is lumber, of which the pineries furnish the raw material. The pine region extends through the northern counties of the State from Green Bay to the St. Croix river. The demand for lumber is constantly increasing, while the facilities for its manufacture are continually enlarging. Over one billion feet of logs are cut annually. The lumber mills have a capacity exceeding one and one-half billion feet. The products of these find their way to market, either by the Mississippi and its tributaries, by the various lines of railways, or through the great lakes. The other leading articles of manufacture are flour, agricultural implements and malt liquors.

    The fourth administration --- William A. Barstow, governor --- was signalized by a fugitive slave case, which greatly excited the people of Wisconsin. Sherman M. Booth, for assisting in the rescue of Joshua Glover, a fugitive slave, was arrested, but discharged by the supreme court. He was again arrested under an indictment in the United States district court, and a second time discharged by the supreme court; but the supreme court of the United States reversed the action of the State court in its second discharge of Booth, and he was rearrested in 1860; the sentence of the district court was executed in part upon him, when he was pardoned by the President. The eighth Legislature of the State (Jan. 10 --- April 2, 1855), passed an act very liberal in its provisions relative to the rights of married women. On the 27th of June, 1855, Hiram A. Wright, superintendent of public instruction, died at Prairie du Chien. The State census, taken in this year (1855), showed a population of 552,109. In 1865, the number had increased to 868,325; in 1875, to 1,236,729. Industrial occupations in Wisconsin were prosperous during the years 1854 and 1855. The fifth administration began with William A. Barstow in the executive chair, by virtue of a certificate from the board of canvassers, that he had been a second time elected governor by a majority (as previously shown) of 157. But this certificate was set aside by the supreme court, giving the office to Coles Bashford, not, however, until Barstow had resigned, and Arthur McArthur, acting, by virtue of his office of lieutenant-governor, as governor from March 21, to March 25, 1856. A dry season during this year diminished the wheat crop. The tenth Legislature of Wisconsin --- Jan. 14 to March 9, 1857 --- passed an act establishing at Waukesha a house of refuge for juvenile delinquents, afterwards called the State Reform School; now known as the Wisconsin Industrial School for boys. It was opened in 1860. The buildings are located on the southern bank of Fox river, in view of the trains as they pass to and from Milwaukee and Madison, presenting an attractive front to the traveling public, and furnishing the best evidence of the parental care of the State authorities for the juvenile wards within its borders. The buildings include a main central building, three stories high, used for the residence of the superintendent's family, office chapel, school rooms, reading room and library, officers kitchen, dining room, and lodging, furnace room and cellar. On the east of the main central building are three family buildings, three stories high, each with dining hall, play room, bath room, dressing room, hospital room, officers' rooms, dormitory and store room. On the west of the main central building are four family buildings like those on the east in all respects, with the exception of the building at the west end of this line, which is a modern building with stone basement. In the rear of this line of buildings is the shop building, 38x258 feet, three stories high, which embrace boot factory, sock and knitting factory, tailor shop, carpenter shop, engine room, laundry and steam dyeing room, bath rooms, store, store rooms, bakery and cellar. The correction house, 44x80 feet, (intended for the most refractory boys) and will accommodate forty; a double family building 38x117 feet for the accommodation of two families of boys of fifty each. There is on the farm, which consists of 233 acres of land, a comfortable house, a stone carriage and horse barn two stories high, built in the most substantial manner.

    The constitution of the State, adopted in 1848, provides, "that the revenue of the school fund shall be exclusively applied to the following objects: "1st. To the support and maintenance of common schools in each school district, and the purchase of suitable libraries and appurtenances therefor. "2d. That the residue of the income of the school fund shall be appropriated to the support of academies and normal schools, and suitable libraries and appurtenances therefor." No effort was made to take advantage of this provision of the constitution for the endowment of normal schools until 1857, when an act was passed providing "that the income of twenty-five per cent. of the proceeds arising from the sale of swamp and overflowed lands should be appropriated to normal institutes and academies, under the supervision and direction of a " 'board of regents of normal schools,' " who were to be appointed in pursuance of the provisions of that act. Under this law, the income placed at the disposal of the regents was distributed for several years to such colleges, academies and high schools as maintained a normal class, and in proportion to the number of pupils in the class who passed satisfactory examinations, conducted by an agent of the board. In 1865, the Legislature divided the swamp lands and swamp land fund into two equal parts, one for drainage purposes, the other to constitute a normal school fund. The income of the latter was to be applied to establishing, supporting and maintaining normal schools, under the direction and management of the board of regents of normal schools, with a proviso that one-fourth of such income should be transferred to the common school fund, until the annual income of that fund should reach $200,000. During the same year, proposals were invited for extending aid in the establishment of a normal school, and propositions were received from various places.

    In 1866, the board of regents was incorporated by the Legislature. In February, Platteville was conditionally selected as the site of a school, and as it had become apparent that a productive fund of about $600,000, with a net income of over $30,000, was already in hand, with a prospect of a steady increase as fast as lands were sold, the board, after a careful investigation and consideration of the different methods, decided upon the policy of establishing several schools, and of locating them in different parts of the State. At a meeting held on the 2d day of May, in the same year, the board designated Whitewater as the site of a school for the southeastern section of the State, where a building was subsequently erected; and on the 16th permanently located a school at Platteville, the academy building having been donated for that purpose. The school at Platteville was opened Oct. 9, 1866. The school at Whitewater was opened on the 21st of April, 1868.

    A building was completed during the year 1870 for a third normal school, at Oshkosh, but owing to a lack of funds, it was not opened for the admission of pupils during that year. The opening and the ceremony of dedicating the building took place Sept. 19, 1871. A fourth normal school was opened in September, 1875, at River Falls, Pierce county. It is understood to be the policy of the board of regents to establish eventually, when the means at their disposal shall permit, not less than six normal schools, but several years must elapse before so many can go into operation. The law under which these schools are organized provides that "The exclusive purpose of each normal school shall be the instruction and training of persons, both male and female, in the theory and art of teaching, and in all the various branches that pertain to a good common school education, and in all subjects needful to qualify for teaching in the public schools; also to give instruction in the fundamental laws of the United States and of this State, and in what regards the rights and duties of citizens."

    Subsidiary to the State normal schools are teachers' institutes, held annually in nearly every settled county, and the State teachers' association, which has been organized for a quarter of a century. Besides the public schools of the State, there are a number of denominational and other colleges, the principal of which are Racine College, Beloit College, Milton College, Ripon College, Carroll College, at Waukesha; Lawrence University, at Appleton; St John's College, at Prairie du Chien; Galesville University; Northwestern University, at Watertown; and Pio Nono College, at St. Francis Station, south of Milwaukee. There is also quite a large number of incorporated academies and seminaries, the more prominent ones being the Milwaukee Academy and St. Mary's Institute, at Milwaukee; Kemper Hall, at Kenosha; St. Catherine's Academy, at Racine; Rochester Seminary, Lake Geneva Seminary, Fox Lake Seminary, Albion Academy, Elroy Seminary, Wayland Institute, at Beaver Dam, and Santa Clara Academy, at Sinsinawa Mound. There are also about 700 private schools in Wisconsin. The whole number of children in Wisconsin between four and twenty years of age is 483,071; the number of pupils in attendance in public schools, 299,019. The aggregate valuation of school property in the State is $5,297,678.24.

    The sixth administration, Alexander W. Randall, governor, was noted for its "long parliament," the eleventh Legislature of the State having been in session 125 days. A report of commissioners previously appointed to revise the statutes, was acted upon during the session, the result being the publication, in one volume, of the "Revised Statutes of 1858." The twelfth Legislature (Jan. 12, to March 21, 1859) was, like the two previous Legislatures, republican. At the commencement of the seventh administration, Randall's second term as governor, that party not only had control of the thirteenth Legislature, but of all the State offices. The governor, in his message to the fourteenth Legislature, on the 10th of January, 1861, declared that the right of a State to secede from the Union, could never be admitted. "The government must be sustained, the laws shall be enforced!" An extra session of the Legislature was convened on the 15th of May, at which, no acts were passed except such as appertained to the military exigencies of the times. Meanwhile a demand made upon the governor by the President, for troops to sustain the federal arm, met with a quick response. During the year, 9,991 men, in ten regiments, for three years' service, and one regiment for three months service, of 810 men, were sent out of the State. The number of volunteers originally in the several military organizations, from Wisconsin during the war, were as follows:

First Infantry, three months810
First Infantry, three years945
Second Infantry, three years1051
Third Infantry, three years979
Fifth Infantry, three years1058
Sixth Infantry, three years1108
Seventh Infantry, three years1029
Eighth Infantry, three years973
Ninth Infantry,8 three years870
Tenth Infantry, three years916
Eleventh Infantry, three years1029
Twelfth Infantry, three years1045
Thirteenth Infantry,8 three years970
Fourteenth Infantry, three years970
Fifteenth Infantry, three years801
Sixteenth Infantry, three years1066
Seventeenth Infantry, three years941
Eighteenth Infantry, three years962
Nineteenth Infantry, three years973
Twentieth Infantry, three years990
Twenty-first Infantry, three years1002
Twenty-second Infantry, three years1009
Twenty-third Infantry, three years994
Twenty-fourth Infantry, three years1003
Twenty-fifth Infantry, three years1018
Twenty-sixth Infantry, three years1002
Twenty-seventh Infantry, three years865
Twenty-eighth Infantry, three years961
Twenty-ninth Infantry, three years961
Thirtieth Infantry, three years906
Thirty-first Infantry, three years878
Thirty-second Infantry, three years993
Thirty-third Infantry, three years892
Thirty-fourth Infantry, nine months961
Thirty-fifth Infantry,8 three years1066
Thirty-sixth Infantry, three years990
Thirty-seventh Infantry, one, two and three years708
Thirty-eighth Infantry, one, two and three years913
Thirty-ninth Infantry, one hundred days780
Fortieth Infantry, one hundred days776
Forty-first Infantry, one hundred days578
Forty-second Infantry, one year877
Forty-third Infantry, one year867
Forty-fourth Infantry, one year877
Forty-fifth Infantry, one year859
Forty-sixth Infantry, one year914
Forty-seventh Infantry, one year927
Forty-eighth Infantry, one year828
Forty-ninth Infantry, one year986
Fiftieth Infantry, one year942
Fifty-first Infantry, one year841
Fifty-second Infantry, one year486
Fifty-third Infantry, one year380
First Cavalry, three years1124
Second Cavalry, three years1127
Third Cavalry, three years1186
Fourth Cavalry, three years1047
First Battery Light Artillery155
Second Battery Light Artillery153
Third Battery Light Artillery170
Fourth Battery Light Artillery151
Fifth Battery Light Artillery155
Sixth Battery Light Artillery157
Seventh Battery Light Artillery158
Eighth Battery Light Artillery161
Ninth Battery Light Artillery155
Tenth Battery Light Artillery47
Eleventh Battery Light Artillery87
Twelfth Battery Light Artillery99
Thirteenth Battery Light Artillery156
Battery A, Heavy Artillery129
Battery B, Heavy Artillery149
Battery C, Heavy Artillery146
Battery D, Heavy Artillery146
Battery E, Heavy Artillery151
Battery F, Heavy Artillery151
Battery G, Heavy Artillery152
Battery H, Heavy Artillery151
Battery I, Heavy Artillery150
Battery K, Heavy Artillery148
Battery L, Heavy Artillery152
Battery M, Heavy Artillery152
Sharp Shooters105
Gibbons' Brigade Band13

    On the 10th of April, 1862, Gov. Louis P. Harvey, the successor of Alexander W. Randall, started, along with others, from Wisconsin on a tour to relieve the wounded and suffering soldiers from this State, at Mound City, Paducah and Savannah. Having completed his mission, he made preparations to return. He went on board a boat, the Dunleith, at the landing in Savannah, and there awaited the arrival of the Minnehaha, which was to convey him and his party to Cairo, Ill. It was late in the evening of the 19th of April when the steamer arrived; and as she rounded to, her bow touched the Dunleith precipitating the governor into the river. Every effort was made to save his life, but in vain. His body was afterward recovered and brought home for interment.

    Edward Salomon, lieutenant-governor, by virtue of a provision of the constitution of the State, succeeded to the office of governor. The enlisting, organization and mustering into the United States service during Randall's administration of thirteen regiments of infantry --- the First to the Thirteenth inclusive, and the marching of ten of them out of the State before the close of 1861, also, of one company of cavalry and one company of sharpshooters constituted the effective aid abroad of Wisconsin during that year to suppress the Rebellion. But for the year 1862, this aid, as to number of organizations, was more than doubled. At the end of the year 1863 thirty-three regiments left the State --- the Thirteenth regiment being the only remaining one of the thirty-four in Wisconsin. The ninth administration, James T. Lewis, governor, saw the close of the Rebellion. On the 10th of April, 1865, Lewis announced to the Legislature, then in session, the surrender of Gen. Lee and his army.

    Fifty-three regiments during the war were raised in Wisconsin, all, sooner or later, moving south and engaging in one way or other in suppressing the Rebellion. Twelve of these regiments were assigned to duty in the eastern division, which constituted the territory on both sides of the Potomac and upon the seaboard from Baltimore to Savannah. These twelve regiments were:

    The First (three months), Second, Third, Fourth, Fifth, Sixth, Seventh, Nineteenth, Twenty-sixth, Thirty-sixth, Thirty-seventh and Thirty-eighth.

    Ten regiments were assigned to the central division, including Kentucky, Tennessee, Northern Alabama and Georgia. These ten were:

    The Tenth, Twenty-first, Twenty-second, Twenty-fourth, Thirtieth, Forty-third, Forty-fourth, Forty-fifth, Forty-sixth and Forty-seventh. Added to these was the First (re-organized).

    Thirty-one regiments were ordered to the western division, embracing the country west and northwest of the central division. These were:

    Eighth, Ninth, Eleventh, Twelfth, Thirteenth, Fourteenth, Fifteenth, Sixteenth, Seventeenth, Eighteenth, Twentieth, Twenty-third, Twenty-fifth, Twenty-seventh, Twenty-eighth, Twenty-ninth, Thirty-first, Thirty-second, Thirty-third, Thirty-fourth, Thirty-fifth, Thirty-ninth, Fortieth, Forty-first, Forty-second, Forty-eighth, Forty-ninth, Fiftieth, Fifty-first, Fifty-second and Fifty-third.

    During the war several transfers were made from one district to another. There were taken from the eastern division the Third and Twenty-sixth and sent to the central division; also the Fourth, which was sent to the department of the gulf. The Twelfth, Thirteenth, Fifteenth, Sixteenth, Seventeenth, Eighteenth, Twenty-fifth, Thirtieth, Thirty-first and Thirty-second were transferred from the western to the central department. The other military organizations from Wisconsin had various assignments. Recruiting ceased in the State on the 13th of April, 1865. It was not many months before Wisconsin's last soldier was mustered out of the service. The State furnished during the war over 75,000 men, of which nearly 11,000 died in the service.

    Among all the noble women who gave themselves to the sanitary work of the civil war perhaps few were more peculiarly fitted for forming and carrying out plans than Mrs. C. A. P. Harvey, widow of the late lamented Gov. Louis P. Harvey. She was appointed by Gov. Salomon one of the sanitary agents of the State. She soon procured the establishment of a convalesent hospital at Madison, Wis. The building when no longer needed as a hospital, Mrs. Harvey conceived the idea of having it converted into a home for soldiers' orphans. On Jan. 1, 1866, the home was opened with eighty-four orphans, Mrs. Harvey at the head. The necessary funds had been raised by subscription; but it soon became a State institution. The orphans were not only maintained but brought up to habits of industry. But it was not long before the number of the inmates began to decrease, owing to the fact that homes were found or many, while some were returned to their mothers; none were kept in the institution after they had reached the age of fifteen. At length when the number had diminished to less than forty children, it was thought best to close the institution. This was in 1875. The whole number of orphans cared for during the continuance of the home was about 700. The Legislature then transferred the building to the regents of the University of Wisconsin, who disposed of it; and a Norwegian seminary is now established therein.

    During the tenth administration, Lucius Fairchild, governor, the National Home for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers, the northwestern branch of the National institution, was established in Wisconsin, three miles from Milwaukee. It has a capacious brick building, containing accommodations for 1,000 inmates. In addition to this building which contains the main halls, eating apartment, offices, dormitory and engine room, are shops, granaries, stables and other out-buildings. The Home farm contains 410 acres, of which over one-half is cultivated. The remainder is a wooded park traversed by shaded walks and drives, beautifully undulating. The main line of the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Railroad runs through the farm, and the track of the northern division passes beside it. Soldiers who were disabled in the service of the United States in the War of the Rebellion, the Mexican War, or the War of 1812, and have been honorably discharged, are entitled to admission to the Soldiers' Home.

    A law was passed in 1867 creating the office of insurance commissioner, the secretary of State being assigned to its duties. But, in 1878, it was made a distinct office, to be filled by the governor's appointment. It was, however, made elective in 1881. Philip L. Spooner has served since April 1, 1878, and is still in office. The joint-stock fire insurance companies of Wisconsin are three in number, its mutual companies also three. There is but one life insurance company in the State. A large number of fire and life insurance companies located outside of Wisconsin transact business under State law within its borders.

    Early in 1870, during Gov. Fairchild's third term, was organized, and in March of that year incorporated, the "Wisconsin Academy of Sciences, Arts and Letters," having among its specific objects researches and investigations in the various departments of the material, metaphysical, ethical, ethnological and social sciences; a progressive and thorough scientific survey of the State, with a view of determining its mineral, agricultural and other resources; the advancement of the useful arts, through the application of science and by the encouragement of original invention; the encouragement of the fine arts by means of honors and prizes awarded to artists for original works of superior merit; the formation of scientific, economical and art museums; the encouragement of philological and historical research; the collection and preservation of historic records and the formation of a general library, and the diffusion of knowledge by the publication of original contributions to science, literature and the arts. The academy has already published several volumes of transactions, under authority of the State. On the 3d day of July of that year A. J. Craig, superintendent of public instruction, died of consumption, and on the 13th of January following occurred the death of associate justice, Byron Paine, of the supreme court. At the twenty-fourth regular session of the Legislature (January 11 --- March 25, 1871,) a commissioner of emigration, to be elected by the people, was provided for. The office was abolished Jan. 3, 1876. During this time but two persons held the office --- Ole C. Johnson, from April 3, 1871, to Jan. 5, 1874; Martin J. Argard, from Jan. 5, 1874, to Jan. 3, 1876. By an act of the Legislature, approved March 4, 1879, the board of immigration of the State of Wisconsin was created, to consist of five members, of which number two are ex-officio --- the governor and secretary of State. The principal office is located in Milwaukee, with a branch office at Chicago. The object is to encourage imigration from Europe to Wisconsin. On the 23d of March, 1871, the State board of charities and reforms was created, to consist of five members to be appointed by the governor of the State, the duties of the members being to investigate and supervise the whole system of charitable and correctional institutions supported by the State or receiving aid from the State treasury. This board have since reported annually to the governor their proceedings. The Wisconsin State horticultural Society, although previously organized, first under the name of the "Wisconsin Fruit Growers' Association," was not incorporated until the 24th of March, 1871 --- the object of the society being to improve the condition of horticulture, rural adornment and landscape gardening. By a law of 1868 provision was made for the publication of the society's transactions in connection with the State Agricultural Society; but by the act of 1871 this law was repealed and an appropriation made for their yearly publication in separate form. The society holds annual meetings at Madison.

    In October, 1871, occurred great fires in northeastern Wisconsin. The counties of Oconto, Brown, Kewaunee, Door, Manitowoc, Outagamie and Shawano suffered more or less. More than 1,000 men, women and children perished. More than 3,000 were rendered destitute. The loss of property has been estimated at $4,000,000. No other calamity so awful in its results has ever visited Wisconsin. A compilation of the public statutes of the State was prepared during the year 1871 by David Taylor (now associate justice of the supreme court), and published in two volumes, known as the "Revised Statutes of 1871." It was wholly a private undertaking, but a very creditable one.

    The Wisconsin Dairymen's Association originated in a resolution offered in the Jefferson County Dairymen's Association, Jan. 26, 1872, to issue a call for a meeting of Wisconsin dairymen, to be held at Watertown, Feb. 15, 1872. A few gentlemen met and organized the Wisconsin Dairymen's Association. The aim of the organization has been to secure improved methods of making butter and cheese and the best markets for shipment and sale. The association holds its annual meeting in January of each year for the discussion of the dairy interests. Dairy fairs are held at each meeting. There is printed annually by the State printer 2,000 copies of the transactions of the association. The Legislature receives 600 copies, the State Historical Society, Academy of Sciences, Art and Letters, State Agricultural Society and Northern Wisconsin Agricultural Association receive forty copies each; the remainder are distributed to the members of the association and generally over the State to all who make application for them. The association receives its support from members who join each year, paying the sum of $1, and by appropriations from the State. Wisconsin won first premium on butter in competition with the world; the second premium on Cheddar cheese (the first going to Canada), and the second on fancy shaped cheese at the International Dairy Fair, held in New York city in December, 1877. To the Dairyman's Association belongs the credit of raising the reputation of Wisconsin cheese and butter from the lowest to the highest rank.

    On the 23d of March, 1873, Lieut.-Gov. Milton H. Pettitt died suddenly and unexpectedly. The Legislature this year passed an act providing for a geological survey of the State, to be completed within four years, by a chief geologist and four assistants, to be appointed by the governor, appropriating for the work an annual payment of $13,000. An act, approved March 25, 1853, authorized the governor to appoint a State geologist, who was to select a suitable person as assistant geologist. Under this law Edward Daniels, on the 1st day of April, 1853, was appointed State geologist, superseded on the 12th day of August, 1854, by James G. Percival, who died in office on the 2d of May, 1856. By an act approved March 3, 1857, James Hall, Ezra Carr and Edward Daniels were appointed by the Legislature geological commissioners. By an act approved April 2, 1860, Hall was made principal of the commission. The survey was interrupted by a repeal March 21, 1862, of previous laws promoting it. However, to complete the survey, the matter was re-instated by the act of this Legislature, approved March 29, the governor, under that act, appointing as chief geologist Increase A. Lapham, April 10, 1873. On the 16th of February, 1875, O. W. Wight succeeded Lapham, but on the 2d of February, 1876, T. C. Chamberlain was appointed Wight's successor, and still holds the office. He has published four volumes of reports in a very able manner, extending from 1873 to 1879, inclusive. Reports were also published by his predecessors.

    And just here it may not be inappropriate to say a word concerning the physical history of Wisconsin. "This can be traced back with certainty to a state of complete submergence beneath the waters of the ancient ocean, by which the material of our oldest and deepest strata were deposited. Let an extensive but shallow sea, covering the whole of the present territory of the State, be pictured to the mind, and let it be imagined to be depositing mud and sand, as at the present day, and we have before us the first authentic stage of the history under consideration. Back of that the history is lost in the mists of geologic antiquity. The thickness of the sediments that accumulated in that early period was immense, being measured by thousands of feet. These sediments occupied, of course, an essentially horizontal position, and were doubtless in a large degree hardened into beds of impure sandstone, shale and other sedimentary rock. But in the progress of time an enormous pressure, attended by heat, was brought to bear upon them laterally, or edgewise, by which they were folded and crumpled and forced up out of the water, giving rise to an island, the nucleus of Wisconsin. The force which produced this upheaval is believed to have arisen from the cooling and consequent contraction of the globe. The foldings may be imagined as the wrinkles of a shrinking earth. But the contortion of the beds was a scarcely more wonderful result than the change in the character of the rock which seems to have taken place simultaneously with the folding, indeed, as the result of the heat and pressure attending it. The sediments, that seem to have previously taken the form of impure sandstone and shale for the most part, underwent a change, in which re-arrangement and crystalization of the ingredients played a conspicuous part. By this metamorphism granite, gneiss, mica schist, syenite, hornblende rocks, chloritic schists and other crystalline rocks were formed."9 But to pursue further an inquiry into the geological structure of the State would be foreign to this brief historical sketch of Wisconsin. The subject is ably treated on in the geological reports before referred to.

    The actual mineral resources of Wisconsin remain very largely to be developed. Its useful mineral material comes under the head of metalic ores and non-metalic substances. Of the first class are the ores of lead, zinc, iron and copper; of the second class are the principal substances found in brick-clay, kaolin, cement rock, limestone for burning into quick lime, limestone for flux, glass-sand, peat and building stone. In Wisconsin lead and zinc are found together; the former has been utilized since 1826, the latter since 1860. The counties of La Fayette, Iowa and Grant --- the southwestern counties of the State --- are known as the "lead region." All the lead and zinc obtained in Wisconsin are from these counties. The lead ore is of one kind only --- that known as galena. A large amount is produced yearly from the various mining districts in the lead region. The number of pounds raised from single crevices has often been several hundred thousand. The zinc ores were formerly rejected as useless, but their value is, beyond doubt, very great, and they will be a source of wealth to the lead region for a long time to come, as they are now extensively utilized. Iron mining in the State is yet in its infancy. Numbers of blast furnaces have sprung up in the eastern portion, but these smelt Michigan ores almost entirely. The several ores in Wisconsin are red hematites, brown hematites, magnetic ores and specular hematites; the first are found in Dodge county; the second in Portage, Wood and Juneau; the two last in Bayfield, Ashland, Lincoln and Oconto counties.

    The thirteenth administration (C. C. Washburn, governor) ended with the 1873, the republican party in the State being defeated for the first time since the commencement of Randall's administration. The session of the Legislature of 1874 was a noted one for the passage of the "Potter Law," limiting the compensation for the transportation of passengers, classifying freight, and regulating prices for its carriage on railroads within Wisconsin. Three railroad commissioners were to be appointed by the governor; one for one year, one for two years, and one for three years, whose terms of office should commence on the 14th day of May, and the governor, thereafter, on the first day of May, of each year, should appoint one commissioner for three years. Under this law the governor appointed J. H. Osborn, for three years; George H. Paul, for two years; and J. W. Hoyt, for one year. Under executive direction, this commission inaugurated its labors by compiling, classifying, and putting into convenient form for public use for the first time, all the railroad legislation of the State. In 1876 this board was abolished and a railroad commissioner, to be appointed by the governor every two years, was to take its place. This latter office was made elective in 1881. The commissioners who have held office under these various laws are: John W. Hoyt, from April 29, 1874, to March 10, 1876; George H. Paul, from April 29, 1874, to March 10, 1876; Joseph H. Osborn, from April 29, 1874, to March 10, 1876; Dana C. Lamb, from March 10, 1876, to Feb. 1, 1878; A. J. Turner, from Feb. 1, 1878, to Feb. 15, 1882; N. P. Haugen, from Feb. 15, 1881, and now in office. The "Potter Law" was resisted by the railroad companies, but ultimately the complete and absolute power of the people, through the Legislature, to modify or altogether repeal their charters was fully sustained by the courts both of State and the United States. The necessity for railroads in Wisconsin began to be felt while yet it was an appendage of Michigan territory. Great advantages were anticipated from their construction. There was a reason for this. Explorers had published accounts of the wonderful fertility of Wisconsin's soil, the wealth of its broad prairies and forest openings, and the beauty of its lakes and rivers. From 1836, with the hope of improving their condition, thousands of the enterprising yeomanry of New England, New York and Ohio started for the territory. Germans, Scandinavians, and other Nationalities, attracted by the glowing accounts sent abroad, crossed the ocean on their way to the new world; steamers and sail-craft laden with families and their household goods left Buffalo and other lake ports, all bound for Wisconsin. With the development of the agricultural resources of the territory, grain raising became the most prominent interest, and as the settlements extended back from the lake shore the difficulties of transportation of the products of the soil were seriously felt. The expense incurred in moving a load of produce seventy or eighty miles to a market town on the lake shore frequently exceeded the gross sum obtained for the same. All goods, wares and merchandise, and most of the lumber used were hauled by teams from Lake Michigan. To meet the great want, better facilities for transportation, railroads were an indispensable necessity. Between the years 1838 and 1841, the territorial Legislature of Wisconsin chartered several railroad companies, but with the exception of the Milwaukee & Waukesha Railroad Company, incorporated in 1847, none of the corporations thus created took any particular shape. There are now in Wisconsin the following railroads, costing, in round numbers, $150,000,000: Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul; Chicago & Northwestern; Chicago, St. Paul, Minneapolis & Omaha; Milwaukee; Lake Shore & Western; Wisconsin Central; Green Bay & Minnesota; Green Bay, Winona & St. Paul; Wisconsin & Minnesota; Chippewa Falls & Western; Fond du Lac, Amboy & Peoria; Prairie du Chien & McGregor; Milwaukee & Northern; Chippewa Falls & Northern, and Wisconsin & Michigan. Other lines are still needed, and present lines should be extended by branch roads. The questions, as we have seen, upon which great issues have been raised between railway corporations in Wisconsin and the people, are now happily settled by securing to the latter their rights, and the former, under the wise and conciliatory policy pursued by their managers, are assured of the safety of their investments. An era of good feeling has succeeded one of distrust and antagonism. The people must use the railroads, and the railroads depend upon the people for sustenance and protection.

    In 1874 the Wisconsin commission for the purpose of fish culture was organized. The next year, by reason of State aid, the commission was enabled to commence work. In 1876 was completed the purchase of grounds, the erection of buildings, and the construction of the ponds (seven in number) of the Madison hatchery, situated in the town of Fitchburg, Dane county. A temporary hatching house was continued for some time in Milwaukee, for the hatching of spawn of the white fish and lake trout. The commission was reorganized in 1878, the number of the members being increased from four to seven. Appropriations by the Legislature have been continued, and the work promises favorable results to the State.

    Under an act of 1875 an Industrial School for girls was organized in Milwaukee, where buildings have been erected, capable of accommodating 150 inmates. Its proper subjects are: (1.) Viciously inclined girls under sixteen, and boys under ten years of age; (2.) The stubborn and unruly, who refuse to obey their proper guardians; (3.) Truants, vagrants and beggars; (4.) Those found in circumstances of manifest danger of falling into habits of vice and immorality; (5.) Those under the above ages who have committed any offense punishable by fine or imprisonment in adult offenders. Although the school was founded by private charity, and is under the control of a self-perpetuating board of managers, it is incorporated and employed by the State for the custody, guardianship, discipline and instruction of the aforenamed children. In default of responsible and efficient guardianship, they are treated as the minors and wards of the State, and by it are committed to the guardianship of this board of ladies during minority.

    The application of Miss Lavinia Goodell for admission to the bar of Wisconsin, was rejected by the supreme court at its January term, 1876; but as a law subsequently passed the Legislature, making ladies eligible to practice in the several courts of the State, she was, upon a second application, admitted.

    By an act approved March 13, 1876, a State board of health was established, the appointment of a superintendent of vital statistics provided for, and certain duties assigned to local boards of health. The State board was organized soon after, seven persons having been appointed by the governor as its members. And here it is proper to say a word as to the health of Wisconsin. "When we compare the general death-rate of Wisconsin with that of the other States of the Union, we find that it compares most favorably with that of Vermont, the healthiest of the New England States. The United States census of 1850, 1860 and 1870, gives Wisconsin ninety-four deaths to 10,000 of the population, while it gives Vermont 101 to every 10,000 of her inhabitants. The census of 1870 shows that the death-rate from consumption in Minnesota, Iowa, California and Wisconsin are alike. These four States show the lowest death-rate among the States from consumption, the mortality being thirteen to fourteen per cent. of the whole death-rate. Climatologically considered, then, there is not a more healthy State in the Union than the State of Wisconsin. But for health purposes something more is requisite than climate. Climate and soil must be equally good. Men should shun the soil, no matter how rich it be, if the climate is inimical to health, and rather choose the climate that is salubrious, even if the soil is not so rich. In Wisconsin, generally speaking, the soil and climate are equally conducive to health, and alike good for agricultural purposes." 10

    There was in Wisconsin a general feeling of patriotism (if the acts of its citizens, both native and foreign born, are to be taken as an indication of their attachment to their country), manifested throughout the centennial year, 1876. A board of State centennial managers was provided for by the Legislature, to represent Wisconsin at the Philadelphia exhibition, and $20,000 appropriated for their use, to make there a proper exhibition of the products, resources and advantages of the State. Under a law of this year, three revisors, afterward increased to five, were appointed to revise the statutes of the State. The result was a large volume, ably collated, known as the Revised Statutes of 1878, which was legalized by act of the June session of the Legislature of that year. On the 19th of October, 1880, Chief Justice Edward G. Ryan departed this life, in the seventieth year of his age. He was buried in Milwaukee, with honors becoming the position held by him at the time of his death. His successor, as previously stated, is Chief Justice Orsamus Cole.

    By an act of the Legislature of 1881, a board of supervision of Wisconsin charitable, reformatory and penal institutions was founded. The boards of trustees by which these institutions had been governed since their organization were abolished by the same law. The board of supervision consists of five members, who hold their office for five years, and who are appointed by the governor, the Senate concurring. The board acts as commissioners of lunacy, and has full power to investigate all complaints against any of the institutions under its control, to send for books and papers, summon, compel the attendance of, and swear witnesses. The powers delegated to this board are so extraordinary, and its duties so manifold, that a recital of them will be found of interest. They are as follows:

    (1.) To maintain and govern the Wisconsin State Hospital for the Insane, the Northern Hospital for the Insane, the Wisconsin State Prison, the Wisconsin Industrial School for Boys, the Wisconsin Institution for the Education of the Blind, and the Wisconsin Institution for the Education of the Deaf and Dumb; and such other charitable and penal institutions as may hereafter be established or maintained by the State. (2.) To carefully supervise and direct the management and affairs of said institutions, and faithfully and diligently promote the objects for which the same have been established. (3.) To preserve and care for the buildings, grounds and all property connected with the said institutions. (4.) To take and hold in trust for the said several institutions any land conveyed or devised, or money or property given or bequeathed, to be applied for any purpose connected therewith, and faithfully to apply the same as directed by the donor, and faithfully to apply all funds, effects and property which may be received for the use of such institutions. (5.) To make on or before October 1 in each year, full and complete annual inventories and appraisals of all the property of each of said institutions, which inventories and appraisals shall be recorded, and shall be so classified as to separately show the amount, kind and value of all real and personal property belonging to such institutions. (6.) To make such by-laws, rules and regulations, not incompatible with law, as it shall deem convenient or necessary for the government of the said institutions and for its own government, and cause the same to be printed. (7.) To visit and carefully inspect each of said institutions as often as once in each month, either by the full board or by some member thereof, and ascertain whether all officers, teachers, servants and employees in such institutions are competent and faithful in the discharge of their duties, and all inmates thereof properly cared for and governed, and all accounts, account books and vouchers properly kept, and all the business affairs thereof properly conducted. (8.) To fix the number of subordinate officers, teachers, servants and employees in each of said institutions, and prescribe the duties and compensation of each, and to employ the same upon the nomination of the respective superintendents and wardens. (9.) To promptly remove or discharge any officer, teacher or employe in any of said institutions, who shall be guilty of any malfeasance or misbehavior in office, or of neglect, or improper discharge of duty. (10.) To annually appoint for the Wisconsin State Hospital for the Insane and for the Northern Hospital for the Insane, for each, a superintendent, one assistant physician, a matron, a steward and a treasurer; and for the Institution for the Education of the Blind, and the Institution for the Education of the Deaf and Dumb, and the Industrial School for Boys, for each, a superintendent, a steward, a treasurer, and all necessary teachers; and for the State prison, a warden, a steward and a treasurer, who shall be the officers of said institutions respectively and whose duties shall be fixed by said board, except as herein otherwise provided. (11.) To maintain and govern the school, prescribe the course of study and provide the necessary apparatus and means of instruction for the Institution for the Education of the Blind, and for the Institution for the Education of the Deaf and Dumb. (12.) To prescribe and collect such charges as it may think just, for tuition and maintenance of pupils not entitled to the same free of charge, in the Institution for the Education of the Blind and in the Institution for the Education of the Deaf and Dumb. (13.) To fix the period of the academic year, not less than forty weeks, and prescribe the school terms in the Institution for the Education of the Blind and the Institution for the Education of the Deaf and Dumb. (14.) To confer, in its discretion, upon meritorious pupils, such academic and literary degrees as are usually conferred by similar institutions, and grant diplomas accordingly, in the Institution for the Education of the Blind and in the Institution for the Education of the Deaf and Dumb.

    On the 20th of April, 1883, a commissioner was appointed by the governor, for two years, in accordance with the provisions of an act passed by the Legislature of that year creating a bureau of labor statistics. The object of this office, now filled by Frank A. Flower, is to collect manufacturing and labor statistics, report violations of laws for benefit of artisans, and generally to show the manufacturing condition and resources of the State.

    In her political divisions Wisconsin has copied, to a considerable extent, from some of her sister States. These divisions are counties, towns, cities and incorporated villages. The county government is in charge of a county board of supervisors, consisting of the chairman of each town board, a supervisor from each ward of every city, and one from each incorporated village. The county officers are: Clerk, treasurer, sheriff, coroner, clerk of circuit court, district attorney, register of deeds, surveyor, and one or two superintendents of schools, all elected biennially. There are sixty-five counties in the State. The government of the towns is in charge of a town board of supervisors. The other officers are clerk, treasurer, assessors, justices of the peace, overseers of highways and constables. The government of cities depends upon charters granted by the State Legislature. Generally, there is a mayor, common council, clerk, treasurer, attorney, chief of police, fire marshal and surveyor. Incorporated villages are governed by a president and six trustees. The other officers are clerk, treasurer, supervisor, marshal and constable, and sometimes a justice of the peace or police justice.

    The constitution of Wisconsin, adopted by the people in 1848, is still "the supreme law of the State;" but it has several times been amended, or had material additions made to it:

    (1.) Article V, section 21, relating to the pay of the members of the Legislature. This was amended in 1867.

    (2.) Article VI, sections 5 and 9, relating to the salaries of the governor and lieutenant-governor. This was amended in 1869.

    (3.) Article I, section 8, relating to grand juries. This was amended in 1870.

    (4.) Article IV, sections 31 and 32, relating to special legislation. These sections were added in 1871.

    (5.) Article XI, section 3, relating to municipal taxation. This was amended in 1874.

    (6.) Article VII, section 4, relating to the number and term of the judges of the supreme court. This was substituted for the original section in 1877.

    (7.) Article VIII, section 2, relating to claims against the State. This was amended in 1877.

    (8.) Article IV, sections 4, 5, 11 and 21, relating to biennial sessions, and a change in salaries and perquisites of members of the Legislature. These were thus amended in 1881.

    (9.) Article III, section 1, relating to residence of voters in election districts some time before the election, and to registration of voters in cities and villages. Amended to this effect in 1882.

    (10.) Article VI, section 4, article VII, section 12, and article XIII, section 1, all relating to biennial elections. Amended to this effect in 1882.11

Pages 42 - 68.

1 - "The boundary of Wisconsin is commonly given as Lake Superior and the State of Michigan on the north, and Michigan and Lake Michigan on the east, and sometimes, also, the Mississippi river is given as part of the western boundary. These boundaries are not the true ones. The State of Wisconsin extends to the center of Lakes Michigan and Superior, and to the center of the main channel of the Mississippi river. As the States of Wisconsin and Michigan meet in the center of Lake Michigan, it is not Lake Michigan that bounds Wisconsin on the east, but the State of Michigan, and so on. The correct boundary of Wisconsin in general terms, is as follows: Wisconsin is bounded north by Minnesota and Michigan, east by Michigan, south by Illinois, and west by Iowa and Minnesota." --- A. O. Wright.
2 - Ex-Officio.
3 - Ex-Officio.
4 - This certificate was set aside by the supreme court.
5 - Took their seats June 5 and 9, 1848.
6 - Died Nov. 24, 1862; McIndoe elected to fill the vacancy, Dec. 30, 1862.
7 - Died Jan. 1, 1870, and David Atwood elected to fill vacancy Feb. 15, 1870.
8 - Nov. 1, 1865.
9 - T. C. Chamberlain, State Geologist, in Illustrated Hist. Atlas of Wisconsin.
10 - Dr. Joseph Hobbins, in Illustrated Historical Atlas of Wisconsin.
11 - A. O. Wright, in Exposition of the Constitution of the State of Wisconsin.
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